Nutrition Test 4

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Nutrition Test 4
2013-04-17 11:11:54
Minerals Vitamins Vet Tech

Minerals and Vitamins, Vet Tech
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  1. Definition of ASH
    Total mineral count in a food
  2. How do you determine ASH?
    • Refers to the noncombustible residue remaining after a measured sample of food is burned at 600 C for 120 minutes. The amount of ash is determined by calculating the residue as a percentage of the original sample.
    • Ex: 50 g sample, ash is 3.5 g, percent is 7%.
  3. Ash contains what essential minerals?
    Calcium, phosphorus, salt and iron
  4. Excessive ash content has been implicated in
    • FUS (feline urological syndrome)
    • FIUTD (Feline lower urinary tract disease)
  5. Calcium & Phosphorus are necessary for
    • normal bone development
    • provide rigidity for bones and teeth
    • aid in blood coagulation
    • necessary for nerve excitability
  6. What is the proper ratio of calcium and phosphorus is necessary to achieve normal growth and development?
    1.2 to 2 parts calcium to each part phosphorus
  7. Calcium & Phosphorus are important in what situtations?
    You must wait until __________ before supplementing calcium
    • young (growing), geriatric, trauma (remodeling bones)
    • lactating
  8. Bone is composed of a bone matrix containing
    calcium, phosphorus, carbonate, citrate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, fluoride and trace elements
  9. Define Cartilage
    Elastic semi-hard tissue covering the surface of the bone that permits smooth motion and diminishes friction
  10. Define epiphysis
    a temporary cartilage formation which grows by multiplying its own cells. This is the main point of bone growth.
  11. When growth is complete the epiphyseal junction is replaced by calcified bone. This
    occurs at about ______ and is called the
    • 1 yr old
    • "closing of the epiphysis"
  12. Epiphysis closes on Cats & small dogs around Large Dogs
    • 8-10 months 
    • 1 - 2 yrs old
  13. Phosphorus from animal sources is ____ while phosphorus from plant sources is _____.
    • 100%
    • 50%
  14. What is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus to pets
    Bone meal
  15. Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH) results in
    a softening or deformation of bones due to failure of the bone matrix to solidify.
  16. List the disease associated with animals who are fed an all meat diet during their growth stage which results in weight-bearing skeletal deformities and folding or compression fractures.
    Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
  17. Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH) occurs in what animals?
    What are the results?
    • animals who are fed an all meat diet during their growth stage.
    • results in weight-bearing skeletal deformities and folding or compression fractures.
  18. List the disease that affects young, rapidly growing large or giant breed dogs with symptoms of soft tissue swelling around the distal radius, ulna and tibia.
    Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy
  19. Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy
    • Affects: young, rapidly growing large or giant breed dogs
    • Symptoms: pain, soft tissue swelling around the distal radius, ulna and tibia, lameness, varying degrees of fever, lethargy, and anorexia.
  20. List the condition associated with a small acetabulum, a misshapen femoral head that results in lameness and pain in the joint.
    Canine Hip Dysplasia
  21. Canine Hip Dysplasia – 
    Thought to be a genetic problem manifested by 
    • a small acetabulum, a misshapen femoral head.
    • Symptoms: lameness and pain in the joint.
  22. What organization screens and rates hip dysplasia?
    OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals)
  23. What breed of dog has the most occurrences of Hip dysplasia?
    English Bulldogs
  24. List the disease that affects pen-fed young bulls with symptoms of sudden lameness and  atrophy of the hip and hind limb muscles
    Degenerative Joint Disease
  25. Degenerative Joint Disease
    Thought to be _____ but can be made worse by a diet ____ in phosphorous and ___in calcium
    • Affects: pen-fed young bulls
    • Symptoms:Sudden onset of lameness, atrophy of the muscles of the hip and hind limb.
    • hereditary; high;  low
  26. Rickets (Osteomalacia) 
    • Affects: young growing animals
    • Cause: a deficiency in phosphorus and Vitamin D
  27. List 2 diseases associated with soft bones
    • Nutritional Secondary to Hyperparathyroidism
    • Rickets
  28. Define Parturient Paresis
    Calcium deficiency at the time of birth
  29. List 2 diseases associated with cattle following calving.
    • Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia
    • Symptom: Inability to rise
  30. List the disease associated with calcium deficiency in dogs at time of birth
    Eclampsia - Gradual decrease of calcium over time
  31. List the disease associated with calcium deficiency in Mares at time of birth
    Lactation Tetany
  32. Treatment for Parturient Paresis is 
    If treatment listed doesn't work it could be
    • Oral calcium paste, IV calcium; Calcium supplements.
    • obturator nerve paralysis
  33. List 3 Hormonal Influences on Calcium and Phosphorus Absorption
    • Parathyroid Hormone 
    • Calcitonin
    • Vitamin D
  34. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) is produced by the parathyroid gland and is necessary for
    moving calcium from bone. Prevents having continual bone growth.
  35. Calcitonin is produced by the ______ and it inhibits _____________.
    • thyroid gland
    • bone resorption
  36. Vitamin D - appears to function more as a _____ than a vitamin.
    Sources of Vit D:
    • hormone 
    • Promotes: intestinal calcium absorption.
    • Sources of Vit D: milk, sun, dairy products
  37. Calcium absorption occurs in the
    small intestine, mainly the duodenum and the jejunum.
  38. Magnesium is used in many fundamental ___________, especially the use of _______ and _______ for energy
    • enzymatic reactions
    • amino acids
    • fatty acids
  39. Magnesium absorption occurs in the
    small intestine
  40. What affects magnesium absorption?
    • A. Calcium
    • B. Phosphorus
    • C. Calcitonin
    • D. Parathyroid hormone
  41. List the deficiency associated with puppies that causes depression, incoordination & muscular weakness, hyperextension and droopiness of the ears and tail.
  42. Magnesium deficiencies in puppies has been shown to cause:
    • A. Depression
    • B. incoordination and muscular weakness
    • C. hyperextension (walking on carpal joints) 
    • D. droopiness of the ears and tail.
  43. What might affect magnesium deficiency?
    Not being absorbed through the food
  44. List the deficiency that is associated with cats that causes muscular weakness, hyperirritability, convulsions, reduced food intake and poor growth.
  45. Magnesium deficiency in cats exhibited:
    • A. muscular weakness
    • B. hyperirritability
    • C. convulsions
    • D. reduced food intake and poor growth.
  46. FLUTD
    • Affects: young cats (most affected), male cats and overweight.
    • Signs:
    • A. Increase use of the litterbox without much
    • urine production
    • B. Vomiting
    • C. Less interest in food
    • D. Signs of discomfort
  47. FLUTD
    Preventative measures:
    • Diagnosis: Urinalysis, Blood Panel, may possibily do a urinary culture, abdominal ultrasound, x-rays
    • Treatment: SQ Fluid therapy, prophylactic antibiotics, dietary therapy – canned food. Cat with complete urinary obstruction treatment includes placement of a urinary catheter to release the obstruction.
    • Preventative measures: Dietary therapy (canned food – low in ash), fluids, drink more water.
  48. If a cat has had FUS/FLUTD 4 or more times they may perform a
    perineal urethrostomy
  49. Hip Dysplasia in dogs 
    • Symptoms: pain, lameness, change in activity level
    • Diagnosis: By physical exam to detect loosens of the hip by palpation, x-rays .
  50. Hip Dysplasia
    Phase 1 – Age __________ to ______
    • 7 months to 1 year 
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’S) to relive pain;
    • Nutraceuticals (Chondroitin, Glucosamine) which may help to restore cartilage and reduce pain
    • Injectable agents (Adequan) may help to reduce wearing of cartilage
    • Cortisone may help with pain but there are many side effects
    • Dietary management – weight loss or dietary restriction.
  51. Hip Dysplasia
    Surgical Treatment: 
    Preventative surgeries:
    • Surgical Treatment: Total hip replacement (THR); Femoral head resection. A less common option is hip deinnervation where remove sensation from the hip 
    • Preventative surgeries: Triple Pelvic Osteotomy; Juvenile Pubic Symphysiodesis (preformed on young pups to prevent hip dysplasia
  52. Hip Dysplasia is common in what breeds?
    German Shepherds, Golden Retriever, Rottweiler, Pugs.
  53. Hypomagnesemia AKA 
    Occurs in:
    • Grass Tetany, Grass Staggers)
    • Occurs in: the spring of the year - Cattle tend to top off grass where Mg levels are low at the top. If grass has been heavily fertilized with a nitrogen fertilizer this will also inhibit mg absorption by the cow. Also occurs in calves who fed a strictly milk diet.
    • Signs: ataxic, possible seizures, coma, death.
    • Treatment: salt lick may cause the cow to drink more water.
  54. List the minerals that serve as fluid regulators
    Sodium, potassium and chloride
  55. SODIUM, CHLORIDE & POTASSIUM are necessary minerals that serve as _______.  They help to maintain the _______________.  These are commonly known as __________.
    • fluid regulators
    • balance between fluids inside and outside of the cell
    • electrolytes
  56. Fluid normally given in emergency situations is 
    Another common electrolyte that can be given is
    • Lactated ringer's solution (LRS)
    • Gatorade or Pedialyte
  57. Function of Sodium 
    Excess sodium is excreted by the
    • Essential element of plasma and other extracellular fluids.
    • Aids in the transfer of nutrients and the removal of waste from the cells.
    • Produces bile which is important in the digestion of fats and carbohydrates.
    • Kidney
  58. Function of Chloride
    Chloride is excreted in the
    • Needed for the formation of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices, which is used to digest protein
    • urine
  59. Causes of Sodium Chloride NaCl deficiency:
    • Prolonged and severe diarrhea
    • Vomiting
    • Adrenal cortical insufficiency.
  60. Fatigue, exhaustion, inability to maintain water balance, decreased water intake, retarded growth, dryness of skin are signs of what deficiency
    Sodium Chloride
  61. Signs of NaCl deficiency are
    • fatigue
    • exhaustion
    • inability to maintain water balance
    • decreased water intake
    • retarded growth
    • dryness of skin
    • loss of hair
  62. Excess Sodium Chloride can occur with _____
    • water deprivation
    • thirst, pruritis, constipation, anorexia, seizures, and death.
  63. Function of Potassium
    Potassium is absorbed in the
    • Needed for proper enzyme, muscle, nerve function, fluid balance and appetite.
    • Small and large intestine.
  64. Poor growth, restlessness, muscular paralysis, cramping, dehydration, lesions in the heart and kidney are signs of what deficiency?
  65. Signs of Potassium deficiency include
    • poor growth
    • restlessness
    • muscular paralysis
    • cramping
    • dehydration
    • lesions in the heart and kidney
  66. Causes of Potassium deficiency:
    High levels of potassium have been known to affect the absorption of
    • chronic diarrhea, vomiting, starvation or diabetes mellitus.
    • magnesium
  67. Short term potassium deficiency through vomiting and diarrhea may be caused by
  68. Iron combined with large protein molecule makes _________, which is iron containing compound in ___________.
    Iron is needed in
    • hemoglobin 
    • red blood cells
    • transporting oxygen and for enzyme in energy utilization
  69. Iron is absorbed in the ___________. 
    Absorption is rapid, appearing in the red blood cells in about __________ after ingestion.
    • small intestine
    • four hours
  70. Define hemopoiesis
    The formation of RBCs and the largest utilization of iron
  71. Define Blood
    a mixture of cells suspended in plasma
  72. Plasma is made up of mostly water but also contains
    proteins, sugars, hormones and salts.
  73. Erythrocytes (RBCs)
    make up _______% of RBCs
    Bone marrow produces ____ RBCs every ____
    to replenish the ones that wear out
    • 40-45%
    • Function: carry oxygen to other cells of the body and to take away CO2 as a waste product.
    • Lifespan: 4 months.
    • 4-5 billion; hour
  74. Leukocytes (WBCs)
    Bodies defense system fights infections from bacteria and viruses.
  75. Define Thrombocytes (platelets)
    Function: to plug holes in the vessels walls. It slows the loss of blood within _____. The plug
    lasts ________ until the platelets run out of energy and fall apart.
    • small pieces of material or cytoplasm.
    • 3-5 mins
    • 24 – 72 hours
  76. Define Anemia 
    • is an iron deficiency
    • Symptoms: reduced appetite, diarrhea, rough hair coat, increases susceptibility to disease.
    • Caused by: hereditary, pathology or nutritional origins.
  77. Nutritional anemia is more likely to occur in the _______ during the _______________. Milk is extremely ______ in iron source.
    • young
    • suckling period
    • low
  78. Sources of Iron
    meat, greens, supplements
  79. How do we test for anemia?
    • PCV %
    • Microhematocrit tube (MCHT) fill with blood, put clay stopper, spin in centrifuge for 3 mins. Read to get %
    • Chemistry Blood Analyzer to get a more accurate answer
  80. Define Aplastic Anemia
    Bone marrow fails to produce essential blood elements. Bone marrow doesn’t keep up with RBCs demand. Does not respond to anti-anemia therapies
  81. Define Hemolytic Anemia
    Caused by shortened lifespan of RBCs and the bone marrows inability to compensate for the decreased lifespan. The body destroys the RBCs
  82. Define Hypochromic Anemia
    Varying degrees of erythrocytes under development. Pale color. Central pallor is normal in a dog, but abnormal in any other animal.
  83. Define Parasitic Anemia
    Absence of RBCs due to parasite ingestion, endoparasite or ectoparasites
  84. At what PCV level will a transfusion be warranted?
    PCV 10-15%
  85. PCV or microhematocrit for most animals is
  86. Normally RBCs are spaced out – in a horse they are stacked on top of each other known as
  87. Why do most commercial pet foods supplement Zinc? 
    Zinc is considered a
    • due to the bodies inability to absorb zinc efficiently
    • trace mineral
  88. Hypogonadism, skeletal deformities, corneal lesions, impaired immune systems are signs of what deficiency?
  89. List 4 conditions that may result due to zinc deficiencies
    • hypogonadism (small genitales)
    • skeletal deformities
    • corneal lesions
    • impaired immune systems
  90. Manganese occurs principally in the body in the
    liver, kidney, pancreas, and bones
  91. Function of Manganese
    • Essential for normal reproduction
    • Essential in glucose utilization
    • Involved in the production of insulin and prothrombin.
  92. What interferes with the absorbtion of manganese?
    Excessive calcium and phosphorus
  93. Function of Copper
    • Used for mobilizing iron for hemoglobin synthesis.  
    • Used for maturation of collagen, pigmentation of hair, neural transmission
  94. Copper Absorption is in the
    The primary storage sites are the
    • Stomach and upper small intestine
    • Liver, kidney and brain
  95. Copper deficiencies in cats can result in
    Decreased plasma and connective tissue defects in the aorta
  96. Copper deficiencies in dogs
    Affects what breed: 
    • Affects what breed: Alaskan Malamutes 
    • Signs: dwarfing and skeletal deformations, which may be hereditary
  97. Copper Toxicity
    Affects what breed of dogs:
    Copper levels are _____in the liver but serum
    concentrations are _____.
    • Affects what breed of dogs: Bedlington terriers, West Highland White, Dobermans, and Cocker Spaniels may also have a genetic predisposition to copper toxicity
    • high; low
    • AKA: Bedlington terrier copper associated hepatopathy or Copper Storage Disease.
  98. Copper deficiency in ruminants
    It has also been recorded in ______
    • AKA: Enzootic ataxia, swayback, falling disease.
    • Cause: anemia and central nervous system disorder
    • pigs
  99. Selenium
    Found in:
    Previously considered a ___, now found to be a ___________.
    Appears to be a required _______.
    Selenium deficiency appear to be an etiological agent in _______.
    Selenium toxicity is characterized by
    • Soil
    • toxin; required trace mineral
    • growth factor
    • myopathies
    • a garlic like odor to the breath.
  100. Dyspnea, frothy nasal discharge, and irregular heart beat are signs of what deficiency?
  101. Most common disease associated with selenium deficiency
    • Affects: calves, lambs and foals.
    • Name: White Muscle Disease or enzootic muscular dystropy. 
    • Signs: dyspnea, frothy nasal discharge, and irregular heart beat. Most will die or if they survive are weak and dyspneic (difficulty breathing)
  102. 2 diseases associated with selenium diseases in pigs are:
    • Mulberry Heart Disease 
    • Hepatosis dietetica
  103. Hepatosis dietetica is a degenerative disease of the liver.  There is massive _______ and __________ is the only clinical sign.
    • hepatic necrosis
    • sudden death
  104. Selenium disease in dogs, is relatively uncommon, but if does occur creates a
    myocardial necrosis
  105. Selenium can be found in high protein sources such as
    wheat or soy
  106. Selenium toxicity in ruminants is due to
  107. Selenium toxicity in ruminants
    Acute toxicity will cause
    • Symptoms: Listlessness, hair loss, soreness or sloughing of hooves, lameness, cardiac atrophy.
    • Acute toxicity will cause blindness, abdominal pain and respiratory arrest.
  108. The only known role of iodine is for
    These hormones are necessary for
    • the synthesis of two hormones produced by the thyroid gland.
    • the regulation of cell oxidation
  109. Iodine Deficiency in 
    Cats is associated with 
    Dogs is associated with
    • goiters, alopecia, abnormal calcium metabolism and death
    • goiters, skeletal deformities, alopecia, lethargy and timidity
  110. Cobalt is a component in 
    Deficiency is unlikely to occur if it is adequately in diet.
    Found in
    • Vitamin B12
    • leafy greens
  111. Nickel - No levels have been established for domestic animals.
    Food sources:
    rice, legumes, oats and most vegetables
  112. Sulphur – Occurs in 
    No levels have been set
    amino acids, cystine and methionine.
  113. Molybdenum
    Important in the formation of 
    Toxicity signs:
    • uric acid
    • chronic diarrhea, ill-thrift, depigmentation of the hair
  114. Aluminum – Essential to
    fertility and immune system
  115. Silicon 
    Important to
    An essential
    • bone mineralization
    • trace element
  116. Chromium
    Essential to the
    May be related to the onset of
    • metabolism of carbohydrates
    • diabetes mellitus in primates
  117. Flourine
    Necessary for
    Found in
    • bones and teeth
    • toothpaste and water
  118. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    A, D, E & K
  119. Vitamin A is stored in the _______ as palmitate ester (retinyl palmitate) and it
    circulates in the serum as an alcohol (retinol).  Vitamin A is absorbed rapidly in the ____.
    • liver 
    • small intestine
  120. Major source of Vitamin A in nature are Vitamin A precursors, the _________.
    The most common being __________ which is yellow pigment in plants
    • carotenoids
    • beta-carotene
  121. The dog utilizes carotene effectively while the cat is unable to do so. Cats rely on stored Vitamin A in 
    animal and fish oils
  122. Vitamin A is involved with 
    vision and cell mitosis
  123. Vitamin D is also called ________, Vit D actually functions as a hormone involved in the regulation of ___________.
    • cholecalciferol
    • calcium metabolism
  124. Vitamin D Toxicity can result in 
    • depressed growth
    • mineralized soft tissues (heart, lung, kidney)
  125. Vitamin E is also known as _________.
    Found in plants and grains, especially ____________.
    Carnivores obtain it from the _____. 
    • tocopherol
    • soybean and wheat germ oils
    • liver and adipose tissue
  126. In order for Vitamin E to function it must be in the presence of
    • polyunsaturated fat
    • selenium
    • sulfur amino acids
  127. Define Steatitis or Pansteatitis
    • inflammation of fatty tissue
    • Yellow fat disease
  128. Vitamin K helps to activate ___________. Deficiencies are uncommon in most domestic animals, but occurs most often in _______.  
    • prothrombin
    • poultry and cattle
  129. Vitamin K sources
    Green leafy plants and vegetables (alfalfa, spinach)
  130. Coumarin is used today in __________ and __________ in cardiac patients. 
    • rat poisoning
    • anti-coagulation drugs
  131. Vitamin C is also known as _________.
    Vitamin C is highly soluble in water and readily absorbed from the gut if supplemented. The body manufactures it naturally from _______. 
    • Ascorbic Acid
    • glucose
  132. Vitamin C is considered essential in what species? 
    • human primates
    • some birds
    • guinea pigs
    • fish.
  133. THIAMIN also known as ____.
    Found in 
    • Vit B1 
    • cereals and cereal brans mainly but also in meat, legumes, green vegetables, fish, fruits, and milk.
  134. What vitamin was found to be the factor that prevented beriberi, a neurological disorder
    characterized by weight loss, paralysis, lack of coordination, mental confusion, convulsions and apathy. Heart failure is the most common cause of death from beriberi
  135. Riboflavin also known as _____
    Found in 
    • Vit B2
    • dairy products and organ meat
  136. What vitamin deficiency causes Curled
    Toe Paralysis in chickens
  137. Niacin is found in _________.
    Essential for normal 
    • various plant and animal tissues
    • carbohydrate metabolism
  138. What vitamin deficiency causes Black tongue in dogs characterized by stomatitis, dermatitis, anemia, hemorrhagic diarrhea. 
    It is called ______ in humans.
    • Niacin 
    • Pellagra
  139. Pantothenic Acid - Found in _____________
    Essential for all animals except the
    • all plant and animal tissues
    • ruminant which synthesize in the rumen
  140. Vitamin B6 is involved in the metabolism of __________
    Comes in three forms
    ___________ has the most nutritional valve.
    • amino acids.
    • Pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. 
    • Pyridoxine 
  141. Folic Acid is important in __________.
    It is involved in the synthesis of
    • reproduction
    • amino acids and DNA
  142. Define Megaloblastic anemia
    abnormal RBC production due to folic acid deficiency
  143. Megaloblastic anemia is a deficiency of what vitamin?
    Folic Acid
  144. Biotin also known as ______
    Found naturally in most foods. Experimental deficiency in calves caused _______.
    • Vit H
    • paralysis
  145. Choline is synthesized in the ______ from the _______
    • liver
    • amino acids
  146. “Perosis” (Chondrodystrophy) deformity of the leg bones in poultry is caused by what vitamin deficiency?
  147. What vitamin deficiency causes night blindness in young animals
    Vitamin A
  148. What vitamin deficiency causes Rickets in cats and dogs
    Vitamin D
  149. What vitamin deficiency causes Brown Bowel Syndrome
    Vitamin E
  150. What toxin and vitamin is associated with Sweet Clover Poisoning 
    Coumarin blocks the vitamin K in production of prothrombin.
  151. What vitamin deficiency causes Scurvy
    Vitamin C