Refers to the noncombustible residue remaining after a measured sample of food is burned at 600 C for 120 minutes. The amount of ash is determined by calculating the residue as a percentage of the original sample.
Ex: 50 g sample, ash is 3.5 g, percent is 7%.
Ash contains what essential minerals?
Calcium, phosphorus, salt and iron
Excessive ash content has been implicated in
FUS (feline urological syndrome)
FIUTD (Feline lower urinary tract disease)
Calcium & Phosphorus are necessary for
normal bone development
provide rigidity for bones and teeth
aid in blood coagulation
necessary for nerve excitability
What is the proper ratio of calcium and phosphorus is necessary to achieve normal growth and development?
1.2 to 2 parts calcium to each part phosphorus
Calcium & Phosphorus are important in what situtations?
You must wait until __________ before supplementing calcium
young (growing), geriatric, trauma (remodeling bones)
Bone is composed of a bone matrix containing
calcium, phosphorus, carbonate, citrate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, fluoride and trace elements
Elastic semi-hard tissue covering the surface of the bone that permits smooth motion and diminishes friction
a temporary cartilage formation which grows by multiplying its own cells. This is the main point of bone growth.
When growth is complete the epiphyseal junction is replaced by calcified bone. This
occurs at about ______ and is called the
1 yr old
"closing of the epiphysis"
Epiphysis closes on Cats & small dogs around Large Dogs
1 - 2 yrs old
Phosphorus from animal sources is ____ while phosphorus from plant sources is _____.
What is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus to pets
Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH) results in
a softening or deformation of bones due to failure of the bone matrix to solidify.
List the disease associated with animals who are fed an all meat diet during their growth stage which results in weight-bearing skeletal deformities and folding or compression fractures.
Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH) occurs in what animals?
What are the results?
animals who are fed an all meat diet during their growth stage.
results in weight-bearing skeletal deformities and folding or compression fractures.
List the disease that affects young, rapidly growing large or giant breed dogs with symptoms of soft tissue swelling around the distal radius, ulna and tibia.
Affects: young, rapidly growing large or giant breed dogs
Symptoms: pain, soft tissue swelling around the distal radius, ulna and tibia, lameness, varying degrees of fever, lethargy, and anorexia.
List the condition associated with a small acetabulum, a misshapen femoral head that results in lameness and pain in the joint.
Canine Hip Dysplasia
Canine Hip Dysplasia –
Thought to be a genetic problem manifested by
a small acetabulum, a misshapen femoral head.
Symptoms: lameness and pain in the joint.
What organization screens and rates hip dysplasia?
OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals)
What breed of dog has the most occurrences of Hip dysplasia?
List the disease that affects pen-fed young bulls with symptoms of sudden lameness and atrophy of the hip and hind limb muscles
Degenerative Joint Disease
Degenerative Joint Disease
Thought to be _____ but can be made worse by a diet ____ in phosphorous and ___in calcium
Affects: pen-fed young bulls
Symptoms:Sudden onset of lameness, atrophy of the muscles of the hip and hind limb.
hereditary; high; low
Affects: young growing animals
Cause: a deficiency in phosphorus and Vitamin D
List 2 diseases associated with soft bones
Nutritional Secondary to Hyperparathyroidism
Define Parturient Paresis
Calcium deficiency at the time of birth
List 2 diseases associated with cattle following calving.
Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia
Symptom: Inability to rise
List the disease associated with calcium deficiency in dogs at time of birth
Eclampsia - Gradual decrease of calcium over time
List the disease associated with calcium deficiency in Mares at time of birth
Treatment for Parturient Paresis is
If treatment listed doesn't work it could be
Oral calcium paste, IV calcium; Calcium supplements.
obturator nerve paralysis
List 3 Hormonal Influences on Calcium and Phosphorus Absorption
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) is produced by the parathyroid gland and is necessary for
moving calcium from bone. Prevents having continual bone growth.
Calcitonin is produced by the ______ and it inhibits _____________.
Vitamin D - appears to function more as a _____ than a vitamin.
Sources of Vit D:
Promotes: intestinal calcium absorption.
Sources of Vit D: milk, sun, dairy products
Calcium absorption occurs in the
small intestine, mainly the duodenum and the jejunum.
Magnesium is used in many fundamental ___________, especially the use of _______ and _______ for energy
Magnesium absorption occurs in the
What affects magnesium absorption?
D. Parathyroid hormone
List the deficiency associated with puppies that causes depression, incoordination & muscular weakness, hyperextension and droopiness of the ears and tail.
Magnesium deficiencies in puppies has been shown to cause:
B. incoordination and muscular weakness
C. hyperextension (walking on carpal joints)
D. droopiness of the ears and tail.
What might affect magnesium deficiency?
Not being absorbed through the food
List the deficiency that is associated with cats that causes muscular weakness, hyperirritability, convulsions, reduced food intake and poor growth.
Magnesium deficiency in cats exhibited:
A. muscular weakness
D. reduced food intake and poor growth.
Affects: young cats (most affected), male cats and overweight.
Diagnosis: Urinalysis, Blood Panel, may possibily do a urinary culture, abdominal ultrasound, x-rays
Treatment: SQ Fluid therapy, prophylactic antibiotics, dietary therapy – canned food. Cat with complete urinary obstruction treatment includes placement of a urinary catheter to release the obstruction.
Preventative measures: Dietary therapy (canned food – low in ash), fluids, drink more water.
If a cat has had FUS/FLUTD 4 or more times they may perform a
Hip Dysplasia in dogs
Symptoms: pain, lameness, change in activity level
Diagnosis: By physical exam to detect loosens of the hip by palpation, x-rays .
Phase 1 – Age __________ to ______
7 months to 1 year
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’S) to relive pain;
Nutraceuticals (Chondroitin, Glucosamine) which may help to restore cartilage and reduce pain
Injectable agents (Adequan) may help to reduce wearing of cartilage
Cortisone may help with pain but there are many side effects
Dietary management – weight loss or dietary restriction.
Surgical Treatment: Total hip replacement (THR); Femoral head resection. A less common option is hip deinnervation where remove sensation from the hip
Preventative surgeries: Triple Pelvic Osteotomy; Juvenile Pubic Symphysiodesis (preformed on young pups to prevent hip dysplasia
Hip Dysplasia is common in what breeds?
German Shepherds, Golden Retriever, Rottweiler, Pugs.
Grass Tetany, Grass Staggers)
Occurs in: the spring of the year - Cattle tend to top off grass where Mg levels are low at the top. If grass has been heavily fertilized with a nitrogen fertilizer this will also inhibit mg absorption by the cow. Also occurs in calves who fed a strictly milk diet.
Signs: ataxic, possible seizures, coma, death.
Treatment: salt lick may cause the cow to drink more water.
List the minerals that serve as fluid regulators
Sodium, potassium and chloride
SODIUM, CHLORIDE & POTASSIUM are necessary minerals that serve as _______. They help to maintain the _______________. These are commonly known as __________.
balance between fluids inside and outside of the cell
Fluid normally given in emergency situations is
Another common electrolyte that can be given is
Lactated ringer's solution (LRS)
Gatorade or Pedialyte
Function of Sodium
Excess sodium is excreted by the
Essential element of plasma and other extracellular fluids.
Aids in the transfer of nutrients and the removal of waste from the cells.
Produces bile which is important in the digestion of fats and carbohydrates.
Function of Chloride
Chloride is excreted in the
Needed for the formation of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices, which is used to digest protein
Causes of Sodium Chloride NaCl deficiency:
Prolonged and severe diarrhea
Adrenal cortical insufficiency.
Fatigue, exhaustion, inability to maintain water balance, decreased water intake, retarded growth, dryness of skin are signs of what deficiency
Signs of NaCl deficiency are
inability to maintain water balance
decreased water intake
dryness of skin
loss of hair
Excess Sodium Chloride can occur with _____
thirst, pruritis, constipation, anorexia, seizures, and death.
Function of Potassium
Potassium is absorbed in the
Needed for proper enzyme, muscle, nerve function, fluid balance and appetite.
Small and large intestine.
Poor growth, restlessness, muscular paralysis, cramping, dehydration, lesions in the heart and kidney are signs of what deficiency?
Signs of Potassium deficiency include
lesions in the heart and kidney
Causes of Potassium deficiency:
High levels of potassium have been known to affect the absorption of
chronic diarrhea, vomiting, starvation or diabetes mellitus.
Short term potassium deficiency through vomiting and diarrhea may be caused by
Iron combined with large protein molecule makes _________, which is iron containing compound in ___________.
Iron is needed in
red blood cells
transporting oxygen and for enzyme in energy utilization
Iron is absorbed in the ___________.
Absorption is rapid, appearing in the red blood cells in about __________ after ingestion.
The formation of RBCs and the largest utilization of iron
a mixture of cells suspended in plasma
Plasma is made up of mostly water but also contains
proteins, sugars, hormones and salts.
make up _______% of RBCs
Bone marrow produces ____ RBCs every ____
to replenish the ones that wear out
Function: carry oxygen to other cells of the body and to take away CO2 as a waste product.
Lifespan: 4 months.
4-5 billion; hour
Bodies defense system fights infections from bacteria and viruses.
Define Thrombocytes (platelets)
Function: to plug holes in the vessels walls. It slows the loss of blood within _____. The plug
lasts ________ until the platelets run out of energy and fall apart.
Caused by: hereditary, pathology or nutritional origins.
Nutritional anemia is more likely to occur in the _______ during the _______________. Milk is extremely ______ in iron source.
Sources of Iron
meat, greens, supplements
How do we test for anemia?
Microhematocrit tube (MCHT) fill with blood, put clay stopper, spin in centrifuge for 3 mins. Read to get %
Chemistry Blood Analyzer to get a more accurate answer
Define Aplastic Anemia
Bone marrow fails to produce essential blood elements. Bone marrow doesn’t keep up with RBCs demand. Does not respond to anti-anemia therapies
Define Hemolytic Anemia
Caused by shortened lifespan of RBCs and the bone marrows inability to compensate for the decreased lifespan. The body destroys the RBCs
Define Hypochromic Anemia
Varying degrees of erythrocytes under development. Pale color. Central pallor is normal in a dog, but abnormal in any other animal.
Define Parasitic Anemia
Absence of RBCs due to parasite ingestion, endoparasite or ectoparasites
At what PCV level will a transfusion be warranted?
PCV or microhematocrit for most animals is
Normally RBCs are spaced out – in a horse they are stacked on top of each other known as
Why do most commercial pet foods supplement Zinc?
Zinc is considered a
due to the bodies inability to absorb zinc efficiently
Hypogonadism, skeletal deformities, corneal lesions, impaired immune systems are signs of what deficiency?
List 4 conditions that may result due to zinc deficiencies
hypogonadism (small genitales)
impaired immune systems
Manganese occurs principally in the body in the
liver, kidney, pancreas, and bones
Function of Manganese
Essential for normal reproduction
Essential in glucose utilization
Involved in the production of insulin and prothrombin.
What interferes with the absorbtion of manganese?
Excessive calcium and phosphorus
Function of Copper
Used for mobilizing iron for hemoglobin synthesis.
Used for maturation of collagen, pigmentation of hair, neural transmission
Copper Absorption is in the
The primary storage sites are the
Stomach and upper small intestine
Liver, kidney and brain
Copper deficiencies in cats can result in
Decreased plasma and connective tissue defects in the aorta
Copper deficiencies in dogs
Affects what breed:
Affects what breed: Alaskan Malamutes
Signs: dwarfing and skeletal deformations, which may be hereditary
Affects what breed of dogs:
Copper levels are _____in the liver but serum
concentrations are _____.
Affects what breed of dogs: Bedlington terriers, West Highland White, Dobermans, and Cocker Spaniels may also have a genetic predisposition to copper toxicity
AKA: Bedlington terrier copper associated hepatopathy or Copper Storage Disease.
Copper deficiency in ruminants
It has also been recorded in ______
AKA: Enzootic ataxia, swayback, falling disease.
Cause: anemia and central nervous system disorder
Previously considered a ___, now found to be a ___________.
Appears to be a required _______.
Selenium deficiency appear to be an etiological agent in _______.
Selenium toxicity is characterized by
toxin; required trace mineral
a garlic like odor to the breath.
Dyspnea, frothy nasal discharge, and irregular heart beat are signs of what deficiency?
Most common disease associated with selenium deficiency
Affects: calves, lambs and foals.
Name: White Muscle Disease or enzootic muscular dystropy.
Signs: dyspnea, frothy nasal discharge, and irregular heart beat. Most will die or if they survive are weak and dyspneic (difficulty breathing)
2 diseases associated with selenium diseases in pigs are:
Mulberry Heart Disease
Hepatosis dietetica is a degenerative disease of the liver. There is massive _______ and __________ is the only clinical sign.
Selenium disease in dogs, is relatively uncommon, but if does occur creates a
Selenium can be found in high protein sources such as
wheat or soy
Selenium toxicity in ruminants is due to
Selenium toxicity in ruminants
Acute toxicity will cause
Symptoms: Listlessness, hair loss, soreness or sloughing of hooves, lameness, cardiac atrophy.
Acute toxicity will cause blindness, abdominal pain and respiratory arrest.
The only known role of iodine is for
These hormones are necessary for
the synthesis of two hormones produced by the thyroid gland.
the regulation of cell oxidation
Iodine Deficiency in
Cats is associated with
Dogs is associated with
goiters, alopecia, abnormal calcium metabolism and death
goiters, skeletal deformities, alopecia, lethargy and timidity
Cobalt is a component in
Deficiency is unlikely to occur if it is adequately in diet.
Nickel - No levels have been established for domestic animals.
rice, legumes, oats and most vegetables
Sulphur – Occurs in
No levels have been set
amino acids, cystine and methionine.
Important in the formation of
chronic diarrhea, ill-thrift, depigmentation of the hair
Aluminum – Essential to
fertility and immune system
Essential to the
May be related to the onset of
metabolism of carbohydrates
diabetes mellitus in primates
bones and teeth
toothpaste and water
Fat Soluble Vitamins
A, D, E & K
Vitamin A is stored in the _______ as palmitate ester (retinyl palmitate) and it
circulates in the serum as an alcohol (retinol). Vitamin A is absorbed rapidly in the ____.
Major source of Vitamin A in nature are Vitamin A precursors, the _________.
The most common being __________ which is yellow pigment in plants
The dog utilizes carotene effectively while the cat is unable to do so. Cats rely on stored Vitamin A in
animal and fish oils
Vitamin A is involved with
vision and cell mitosis
Vitamin D is also called ________, Vit D actually functions as a hormone involved in the regulation of ___________.
Vitamin D Toxicity can result in
mineralized soft tissues (heart, lung, kidney)
Vitamin E is also known as _________.
Found in plants and grains, especially ____________.
Carnivores obtain it from the _____.
soybean and wheat germ oils
liver and adipose tissue
In order for Vitamin E to function it must be in the presence of
sulfur amino acids
Define Steatitis or Pansteatitis
inflammation of fatty tissue
Yellow fat disease
Vitamin K helps to activate ___________. Deficiencies are uncommon in most domestic animals, but occurs most often in _______.
poultry and cattle
Vitamin K sources
Green leafy plants and vegetables (alfalfa, spinach)
Coumarin is used today in __________ and __________ in cardiac patients.
Vitamin C is also known as _________.
Vitamin C is highly soluble in water and readily absorbed from the gut if supplemented. The body manufactures it naturally from _______.
Vitamin C is considered essential in what species?
THIAMIN also known as ____.
cereals and cereal brans mainly but also in meat, legumes, green vegetables, fish, fruits, and milk.
What vitamin was found to be the factor that prevented beriberi, a neurological disorder
characterized by weight loss, paralysis, lack of coordination, mental confusion, convulsions and apathy. Heart failure is the most common cause of death from beriberi
Riboflavin also known as _____
dairy products and organ meat
What vitamin deficiency causes Curled
Toe Paralysis in chickens
Niacin is found in _________.
Essential for normal
various plant and animal tissues
What vitamin deficiency causes Black tongue in dogs characterized by stomatitis, dermatitis, anemia, hemorrhagic diarrhea.
It is called ______ in humans.
Pantothenic Acid - Found in _____________
Essential for all animals except the
all plant and animal tissues
ruminant which synthesize in the rumen
Vitamin B6 is involved in the metabolism of __________
Comes in three forms
___________ has the most nutritional valve.
Pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine.
Folic Acid is important in __________.
It is involved in the synthesis of
amino acids and DNA
Define Megaloblastic anemia
abnormal RBC production due to folic acid deficiency
Megaloblastic anemia is a deficiency of what vitamin?
Biotin also known as ______
Found naturally in most foods. Experimental deficiency in calves caused _______.
Choline is synthesized in the ______ from the _______
“Perosis” (Chondrodystrophy) deformity of the leg bones in poultry is caused by what vitamin deficiency?
What vitamin deficiency causes night blindness in young animals
What vitamin deficiency causes Rickets in cats and dogs
What vitamin deficiency causes Brown Bowel Syndrome
What toxin and vitamin is associated with Sweet Clover Poisoning
Coumarin blocks the vitamin K in production of prothrombin.