FOR 208 Soils-Terminology review for FINAL

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FOR 208 Soils-Terminology review for FINAL
2013-06-06 18:20:46
Intro Soils

Basic terminology of rocks, soils, minerals and their formation
Show Answers:

  1. What is "ClORPT"?
    • Climate
    • Organics
    • Relief
    • Parent Material
    • Time
  2. What are the key elements of soil?
    • Mineral
    • Organic
    • Air
    • Water
  3. Why does air space vary in soils?
    To accommodate organics and water.
  4. What are the 3 types of rocks?
    • Igneous
    • Sedimentary
    • Metamorphic
  5. Describe Igneous rock.
    Rocks made from fire and heat, liquid magma that has cooled to form rocks.
  6. Describe Metamorphic rock.
    Igneous or Sedimentary rocks that have been changed through extreme heat and pressure due to movement of the earth's crust.
  7. Describe Sedimentary rock.
    Layers of sand, clay, and bits of rock layered down by water and turned to rock.

    (where fossils are found)
  8. What is a mineral?
    Any repeating sequence of elements forming bonds.
  9. What is a Primary Mineral?
    Derived directly from molten material.
  10. What is a Secondary Mineral?
    Derived from primary materials.
  11. What is a rock?
    Collections, or aggregates of 2 or more minerals.
  12. What is Parent Material?
    Alluvial/Fluvial material from which a soil is derived and transported.
  13. What group of minerals makes up the largest percentage of the earth's crust?
  14. Is Parent Material the same as Parent Rock?
  15. Describe Alluvial Sediments. (Alluvium)
    Deposited by moving water.

    Materials are sorted in layers.

    Rocks and gravels tend to be rounded/lacking sharp edges.
  16. Describe Lacustrine Sediments.
    Clays, silts deposited by water that slows down as it enters a pond or lake.

    Finer materials than alluvium, but same basic idea.
  17. Describe Colluvium/Glacial Till.
    Gravity pulls material downhill.

    Does not sort the material like water does.

    Rock edges are mixed round and sharp.
  18. Describe Marine Sediments.
    Mainly coastal.

    Very fine sediments, like silts and/or clays.

    Not commonly seen unless lifted by tectonics.
  19. Describe Residual Material. (Residuum)
    Material that develops on top of bedrock weathering in place.

    Soil can form in this residual material.

    Common in areas where erosion is not as much of a factor. (flat areas)
  20. Describe the 2 types of Igneous rocks.
     Intrusive: Is formed (somewhat) deep down.

    • Extrusive: Comes to the surface in liquid form/ cools near surface.
  21. Name the types of Parent Materials.
    • Alluvial- deposited by streams
    • Lacustrine- deposited in lakes
    • Marine- deposited in oceans
    • Colluvial- deposited by gravity
    • Till/Moraine- deposited by ice
    • Eolian- deposited by wind
    • Residual- forms in place
  22. How does Parent Material affect soil properties?
    • Texture
    • Chemistry
    • Weathering
    • Vegetation
    • Amount and types of clays
  23. Decomposition increases by 2x for every ___ degrees Celsius.
    10 degrees celsius
  24. Which soil texture measures 2mm-0.05mm?
  25. Which soil texture measures 0.05mm-0.002mm?
  26. Which soil texture measures <0.002mm?
  27. Soils from moist environments are:

    a) acidic
    b) non-acidic
    a) acidic
  28. Weathering: Disintegration is _____________ breakdown.

    a) Physical
    b) Chemical
    a) Physical
  29. Weathering: Decomposition is ___________ breakdown.

    a) Physical
    b) Chemical
    b) Chemical
  30. Iron: FE 2+, or green iron, is___________.

    a) ferric
    b) ferrous
    b) ferrous
  31. Iron: FE 3+, or red iron, is ____________.

    a) ferric
    b) ferrous
    a) ferric
  32. What is Bulk Density?
    Dry soil mass
  33. Color is an indicator of:
    What is happening to the soil.
  34. What are the three components of the Munsell Color System? (In order)
    Hue- Primary color

    Value- Light to dark

    Chroma- Purity (shade)

    *note if this is a wet or dry color.
  35. Horizon tags (A, Bt, Bk, etc.) indicate:
    Concentrations of carbonates.
  36. What is REDOX?
    Reduction/Oxidation in soils.

    -When an element is changing its oxidation process.
  37. Oxidation happens in ________ environments.

    a) aerobic
    b) anaerobic
    a) aerobic
  38. Reduction happens in ___________ environments.

    a) aerobic
    b) anaerobic
    b) anaerobic
  39. 3 major physical traits of soil are:
    • Texture
    • Structure
    • Color
  40. What kind of soil does our area (Central Oregon) have?
    Sandy Loam