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Some common traits to the domestication of grasses
- height (same height, short,strong stature)
- Controlling lodging
- Inhibit shattering
- synchrony of tiller formation
- selection for elimination of branching
the significance of synchronizing tiller formation?
synchrony of tiller formation allows seeds to grow and mature around the same time
significance for short stature?
- eliminates problem of lodging ESPECIALLY in the wet lands
- lodging wrecks crops
- intense selection for dwarf varieties and stlk strength increased cultivation
Significance to select reducing Shattering?
- evolutionarily, inflorescences shattered easily to spread seeds once plant matured
- mutations allows a selection for non-shattering plants which increased yields from collecting
Significance of selecting for easy-threshing?
- threshing used to have to be done by hand
- domestication made grains loosely enclosed by bracts allowing easy removal
significance of symbiosis of legumes and Rhizobium bacteria?
- bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into the plant tissues as ammonia
- increase growth
- crop rotation with legumes replenish soil
significance of legume nutrition
- legumes are rich in proteins (but lack in sulfur-rich amino acids)
- have stachylose
what is stachylose? What does it do?
- a sugar molecule from legumes
- in the intestines, gut bacteria digest it and produce CO2 and H2S
how has the quality of the seed in cereals and grains changed since domestication?
- domestication caused polypliodity
- polyploidity brought an increase of gluten content (gluten protein)
The first cereal domesticated?
2 types of barley spikelets.
2 row and 6 row
Some grains that are not cereals
how do plants acquire nitrogen?
nitrates or ammonia in the soil
How does Rhizobium help plants?
Rhizobium (and allies) fix atmospheric nitrogen gas inside plant tissues, releasing ammonia for the plant to use
the most abundant legume crop?
soybean significance ?
Most abundant legume crop
Balanced Amino Acids
Rich in Protein
Huge array of foodstuffs
Filler in processed (and sliced!) meats
descrive the stem structure differences between a monocot and a dicot
- a monocot has disordered stem structure
- a dicot has concentrically organized vascular bundles
fiber cells are ____to the phloem
the xylem is ___to the phloem
the pith is located in the ____ of the stem
middle of dicots
this plant structure transports water and soluble mineral nutrients
2 ways to keep the xylem flowing
- Transpirational pull
- Root pressure (osmosis)
how is capillary action achieved in the xylem?
movement of water upwards is created by adhesion of water molecules and the xylem wall, the action provides a force that establishes equilibrium with gravity and transpiration
the function of the phloem
carries organic nutrients