PSY 241 Lecture 15

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PSY 241 Lecture 15
2013-04-13 18:57:23
Learning Memory arturo zavala psychobiology

Learning and Memory 2 arturo zavala psychobiology
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  1. Types of nondeclarative memory
    • Skill learning
    • Priming
    • Associative learning
    • Instrumental conditioning
  2. Skill learning
    • Learning to perform a challenging task through repetition
    • Impaired with damage to the basal ganglia
  3. Priming
    • Repetition priming
    • Change in stimulus processing due to prior exposure to stimulus
    • Function of cortex
    • Related to reduced activity in different cortical areas
  4. Associative learning
    • Association between 2 stimuli, or between stimulus and a response
    • Classical conditioning - neutral stimulus, paired with another stimulus that elicits response, same response when presented alone
    • Conditioning requires intact circuits in cerebellum
  5. Instrumental Conditioning (operant conditioning)
    • Behavior and its consequences
    • Reinforcers are events or activities that increase the frequency of the behavior that precedes an event or activity
    • Punishers are events or activities that decrease the frequency of behavior
  6. Types of memories
    • Iconic memories
    • Short-term memories (STM)
    • Long-term memories (LTM)
    • Working memory
  7. Iconic memories
    briefest and store sensory impressions
  8. Short-term memories
    • Last for seconds, or throughout rehearsal
    • Events or things that just occured
    • Once lost, lost forever
  9. Long-term memories
    • Last for days to years
    • Not limited
  10. Working memory
    • Memory that can be retained for longer than seconds but stored for only a specific amount of time
    • Can be retained without rehearsing them for hours or days without constant rehearsal
  11. Functional Memory System
    • Encoding
    • Consolidation
    • Retrieval
  12. Encoding
    sensory info encoded into short-term memory
  13. Consolidation
    info consolidated into long-term storage
  14. Retrieval
    stored info is retrieved
  15. Reconsolidation
    return of memory trace to stable long-term storage, after recall
  16. Memory trace
    • Record laid down by experience
    • Doesn't deteriorate over time
    • Interfered with by other events occurring before or after
  17. ___________, ______________, and ___________ store information in the nervous system
    Molecular, synaptic, and cellular events store information in the nervous system
  18. New learning and memory formation involved changes in the _____________________ in response to biochemical signals
    New learning and memory formation involved changes in the strength of synapses in response to biochemical signals
  19. Neuroplasticity
    • Ability of nervous system to change in response to experience or environment
    • How memories form in the brain

    • Increased neurotransmitter release
    • Inactivation of the transmitter in decreased
    • Greater effect due to changes in receptors
    • Influence by other neurons
  20. Those is an enriched condition developed:
    • Heavier, thicker cortex
    • Enhanced cholinergic activity
    • More dendritic branches and spines on cortical neurons
    • Larger cortical synapses
    • More neurons in the hippocampus
    • Enhanced recovery from brain damage