PSY 241 Lecture 16

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  1. Aplysia
    • will retract gill when water is squirted into their siphon
    • will exhibit habituation
  2. Habituation
    • decrease in response to a stimulus as it is repeated
    • form on non-association learning (only 1 stimulus)
  3. Short-term habituation
    Caused by synaptic changes between the sensory cell in the gill - less transmitter released by sensory neuron produces the short term habituatior
  4. It is important to note that habituation is NOT a result of:
    • failure of the sensory system to detect the stimulus
    • failure of the motor system to repond
  5. Conditioned Eye Blink
    • US: Air puff
    • UR: Blinking
    • CS: Bell
    • CR: Blinking after pairing
    • Lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP)
    • Neurons in the LIP are not responsive to the town presentation in the beginning, but eventually increase their responding as learning
  6. Hebbian synapses
    • cells that fire together, wire together
    • could act together to store memory traces
    • support found in hippocampus
  7. Recording in Hippocampus
    • Electrode within perforant path
    • record electrical response of group of postsynaptic neurons (dentate gyrus)
  8. Long Term Potentiation
    • Normal,low level activation of the presynaptic cells produces table and predictable Excitatory post-synaptic potentaisl (EPSPs)
    • Tetanus applied to presynaptic cells, causing them to produce a high rate of action potentials, the response of the postsynaptic neurons changes
  9. Tetanus
    Brief high-frequency burst of electrical stimuli
  10. LTP can last for _____________
    weeks or more
  11. LTP occurs at synapses that used the transmitter _____________
  12. LTP depends on NMDA receptors (______________________________) along with AMPA receptors
    block them and you get no LTP
  13. Magnesium block is removed when
    partial depolarization occurs and the NMDA receptor allows calcium to enter in response to glutamate
  14. Influx of Ca2+ activates ________________. causing changes in AMPA receptors:
    • Influx of Ca2+¬†activates intracellular enzymes. causing changes in AMPA receptors:
    • Existing receptrs move to the active synapse (increased conductance of ions)
    • Activate retrograde signal to increase neurotransmitter release
    • Synapses that are not strengthened will become weaker and fade away
  15. Correlational observations
    Time course of LTP is similar to that of memory formation
  16. Somatic intervention experiments
    • pharmacological treatments that block LTP also impair learning
    • Mice pverexpress NMDA receptors have enhanced LTP and better memory
  17. Behavioral intervention experiments
    training an animal in a memory task can induce LTP
  18. Tetanus activity necessary to produce LTP is _______________________________________
    Tetanus activity necessary to produce LTP is artificial (it is not reproducible in real life)
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PSY 241 Lecture 16

Learning and Memory 3 arturo zavala psychobiology
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