SOCIO 220 CH 12

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SOCIO 220 CH 12
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2013-05-21 18:41:30
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Sociology 220 SOCIO
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Sociology 220 Chapter 12 notecards for Final Exam
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  1. What is culture?**
    • Ideas
    • Norms
    • Material Culture
  2. What are the basis for race, ethnicity and minority groups in Sociology?**
    • Race - based on Biology
    • Ethnicity - based on culture
    • Minority Groups - based on politics
  3. Based on the United States census (census.gov) what is the percentage of people that identify themselves as being two or more races?
    Less than three percent.
  4. Race refers to...
    a group of people who are believed to be a biological group sharing genetically transmitted traits that are defined as important
  5. Every racial group can be divided into (1)_____ groups, based on (2)______, (3)_______, (4)_______, (5)______, (6)________, etc.
    • 1. ethnic
    • 2. nationality
    • 3. language
    • 4. tribal affiliation
    • 5. culture
    • 6. religion
  6. Ethnic Groups refers to...
    a group of people who share a common historical and cultural heritage and sense of group identity and belongingness
  7. Ethnic groups are based on (1)_____, (2)_____, (3)_____, (4)_______, (5)_______, etc.
    • 1. culture
    • 2. nationality
    • 3. language
    • 4. tribal affiliation
    • 5. religion
  8. Ethnic Group: White Race Category
    • - Irish
    • - Polish
    • - Italian
    • - Russian
    • - German
    • - Scottish
    • - Jewish
    • - Arab
    • - Latino
  9. Ethnic Group: Black Race Category
    • - Creole
    • - Jamacian
    • - Geechee
    • - Gullah
    • - Ethiopian
    • - Latino
    • - Jewish
    • - Arab
    • - Muslim
  10. Ethnic Group: Asian Race Category
    • - Hmong
    • - Mien
    • - Chinese
    • - Japanese
    • - Filipino
    • - Latino
    • - Jewish
    • - Indian (India)
  11. Ethnic Group: Latino
    • - Mexican
    • - Brazilian
    • - Colombian
    • - Cubian
    • - American Indian
    • - Yaahi
  12. What is the difference between Latino and Hispanic?
    • Latino is more general and therefore more excepted.
    • Hispanic is specifically for Mexican born or raised individuals.
  13. Minority Group refers to...
    • a group which has been singled out for differential and unequal treatment
    • e.g., racial minorities in the USA; ethnic minorities in the USA; White women before the 1960s
  14. Genocide
    • Refers to state-sponsored mass killing explicitly designed to completely exterminate a population deemed to be racially or ethnically different and threatening to the dominant population
    • e.g., population of American Indians in the USA was reduced from more than 4 million in the 1700s to less than 600,000 in the early 1900s
  15. Expulsion
    • Refers to the forcible removal of one population from a territory claimed by another population
    • e.g., American Indians known as the Cherokee [mountain people] were forced on a death march from Georgia & elsewhere to Oaklahoma in 1838
    • (Kornblum, 2012, p. 297)
  16. How many Cherokees died on the death march from Georgia & elsewhere to Oaklahoma?
    What is this infamous trip known as?
    • - 4,000 out of 15,000 Cherokees died
    • - Trail of Tears
  17. Slavery
    • Refers to the ownership of one racial, ethnic, or politically defined group by another group that has complete control over the enslaved group
    • e.g., of the 24 million African people who were captured & enslaved, 11 million African people managed to survive the Middle Passage; by 1865 - 450,000 enslaved African people brought to the USA had increased to 4.4 million enslaved African people
    • (Kornblum, 2012, p. 299)
  18. Which country had the most African slaves?
    Brazil - 80 million African slaves
  19. Segregation
    • Refers to ecological and institutional separation of races or ethnic groups
    • (Kornblum, 2012, p. 300)
  20. What are the two types of segregation?
    • de jure segregation
    • de facto segregation
  21. What are the years that segregation was legal at the macro level?
    What was this known as?
    • 1896 to 1964
    • The One Drop Rule
  22. What is The One Drop Rule?
    that a person with any black blood would be placed into the Black race category
  23. What is the court case that established de jure segregation at the macro level in 1896?
    Plessy v. Ferguson
  24. What is the court hearing that eliminated the de jure segregation at the macro level?
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  25. De jure Segregation
    • Refers to segregation created by formal legal sanctions that prohibit certain groups from interacting with others or place limits on such interactions
    • (Kornblum, 2012, p. 300)
  26. De facto Segregation
    • Refers to segregation created and maintained by unwritten norms
    • e.g., the custom which kept Black people from using public swimming pools in places like Waycross, Georgia between 1964 and 1970
    • (Kornblum, 2012, p. 300)
  27. Assimilation
    • Refers to the process by which a culturally distinct group in a society is forced or volunteers to give up its unique culture to get educational slots, jobs or contracts
    • e.g., Black people faced forced assimilation through slavery; American Indians were forced into assimilation in Indian boarding schools like Carlyle
  28. What are the two types of assimilation?
    • forced assimilation
    • voluntary assimilation
  29. Jim Crow
    Refers to a system of de jure segregation (i.e., formal segregation) and de facto segregation (i.e., informal segregation) that existed in the United States both before and after the Civil War to make Black people into second-class citizens with fewer rights and privileges than White people
  30. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    Refers to a Supreme Court decision in 1896 which led to de jure segregation at the macro level

    Homer Plessy was a Creole man in New Orleans who lost a case against a sreet car company in New Orleans wherein the one drop-rule was established

    e.g., the Plessy decision established that a person with any Black blood would be placed into the Black racial category
  31. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
    Supreme Court case in 1954 which made it legal for Black and White elementary school children to attend the same elementary schools
  32. Who was the girl whose father filed a lawsuit against the Topeka, Kansas Board of Education?
    Linda Brown
  33. Why did a father of a black girl file a lawsuit against the Topeka, Kansas Board of Education?
    Because the Topeka, Kansas Board of Education refused to allow his daughter to attend a neighborhood school because she belonged to the Black race.
  34. What was one reaction of the Southern states after the Brown v Board of Topeka, Kansas Supreme Court case of 1954?
    The Southern states made the Confederate battle flag part of the state flag in 1956 to send a message to Black people.
  35. What is Milton Gordon's Three Ideological Tendencies of Intergroup Relations?
    A typology of intergroup relations which consists of three dimensions.

    Milton Gordon Robert Park first wrote about this typology in a book he published in 1964 titled Assimilation in American Life
  36. Milton Gordon's Three Ideological Tendencies of Intergroup Relations
    • 1. Anglo-conformity
    • 2. The melting pot
    • 3. Cultural Pluralism
  37. What is Anglo-conformity?
    Anglo Conformity means to conform to the American way of life such as speaking, dressing, foods, etc...

    e.g., changing a last name to sound more American
  38. What is the melting pot?
    Melting pot is a metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous. The different elements "melt together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture.
  39. Cultural pluralism is...
    a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.
  40. Ethnic Stratification refers to..
    • the ranking of ethnic groups in a social hierarchy on the basis of each group's similarity to the dominant group.
    • e.g., White people of Scandinavian or norther European descent are more readily accepted into the White people than are people of Mediterranean descent
  41. In the United States, what group has continued to be the dominant group?
    White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP)
  42. Additionally, concerning Ethnic Stratification, different groups are valued (1)______ depending on how (2)_____ they conform to (3)________ standards of (4)_______, (5)______, and (6)________.
    • 1. differently
    • 2. closely
    • 3. Anglo-Saxon
    • 4. appearance
    • 5. behavior
    • 6. values
  43. Pluralistic society refers to...
    a society in which different ethnic and racial groups are able to maintain their own cultures and lifestyles while gaining equality in the institutions of the larger society
  44. Stereotypes refers to...
    inflexible images of the members of a particular group that is held without regard to whether it is true

    e.g., if you wear glasses then you like reading books
  45. What is discrimination based on?**
    Behavior
  46. Discrimination refers to...**
    behavior that treats people unfairly on the basis of their group membership
  47. What is prejudice based on?**
    Attitude
  48. Prejudice refers to...**
    • an attitude that prejudges a person on the basis of a real or imagined characteristic of a group to which that person belongs
    • e.g., a person has a negative attitude towards another person because the other person belongs to a certain racial or ethnic group
  49. Which is more difficult to change: Prejudice or Discrimination?**
    Prejudice...

    It is more difficult to change what another person thinks or feels.
  50. Institutional Discrimination
    The systematic exclusion of people from equal participation in a particular institution because of their group membership

    e.g., a person is not able to get a job, contract, or educational slot because of his or her racial or ethnic group
  51. Racial Nationalism
    A social condition wherein a racial group engages in racial solidarity and collective behavior around economic, political, and/or cultural matters

    e.g., one can be a proponent or advocate of racial solidarity and collective behavior around economic matters, but not political and/or cultural matters as was Booker T. Washington
  52. Ethnic Nationalism (p. 308)
    A social condition wherein an ethnic group engages in ethnic solidarity and collective behavior around economic, political, and/or cultural matters

    e.g., one can be a proponent or advocate of racial solidarity and collective behavior around economic matters, but not political and/or cultural matters

    e.g., one can be an advocate of racial solidarity and collective behavior around economic, political, and cultural matters
  53. Economic Nationalism
    A social condition of racial or ethnic solidarity around economic matters

    e.g., Jewish Free Loan Association of Los Angeles - "Don't hate, replicate" (other versions could make 'free loans' available too)
  54. Political Nationalism
    A social condition of racial or ethnic solidarity around economic matters
  55. Cultural Nationalism
    A social condition of racial or ethnic solidarity around cultural matters

    e.g., Columbus Day - celebrated by Italians; Cherry Blossom Festival - Japanese American Historical Society based in San Francisco
  56. Black Nationalism Movement
    Form of racial nationalism found among Black people

    Involves racial solidarity around economic, political, and/or cultural matters
  57. Pan-Asian Movement
    Form of racial nationalism found among Asian people

    involves racial solidarity around economic, political and/or cultural matters
  58. La Raza Movement
    Form of ethnic nationalism found among Latino people

    Involves ethnic solidarity around economic, political, and/or cultural matters
  59. What are the two cities that the Young Lords started in?
    New York City and Chicago
  60. Zionist Movement
    Form of ethnic nationalism found among White Jewish people

    Involves ethnic solidarity around economic, political, and/or cultural matters
  61. Racial or Ethnic Nationalism:
    Pan-Asian Movement
    Racial Nationalism
  62. Racial or Ethnic Nationalism:
    La Raza Movement
    Ethnic Nationalism
  63. Racial or Ethnic Nationalism:
    Zionist Movement
    Ethnic Nationalism
  64. Racial or Ethnic Nationalism:
    Black Movement
    Racial Nationalism
  65. Affirmative Action
    Policies designed to correct persistent racial and ethnic inequalities in promotion, hiring, and access to opportunities

    e.g., a federal or state program developed to give preference to people in the areas of jobs, contracts, and/or educational slots
  66. Scapegoat
    A convenient target for misplaced aggression or a buildup of frustration
  67. Projection
    The process whereby people attribute to other people certain behaviors and feelings that they are unwilling to accept in themselves
  68. Internal Colonialism
    A social condition wherein racial minorities or ethnic minorities are treated by dominant group as colonial people within the larger society

    Racial/Ethnic minorities are subjected oppression and exploitation by the dominant group
  69. Who coined the term "internal colonialism"?
    Robert Blauner of the University of California Berkeley
  70. What is Robert Park's Cyclical Model of Intergroup Relations?
    A theoretical model which consists of five stages.

    Park first wrote about this model in an article he published in 1914 titled "Racial Assimilation in Secondary Groups"
  71. What are the five stages of Robert Park's Cyclical Model of Intergroup Relations?
    • 1. Invasion
    • 2. Resistance
    • 3. Competition
    • 4. Accommodation
    • 5. Assimilation

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