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2013-04-13 22:10:44
HON 122

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  1. I.                   Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary
    • a.      Like Russia, Germany and AH experienced political revolution as a result of military defeat
    • b.      November 1918, when Germany began to disintegrate in a convulsion of mutinies and mass demonstrations (November Revolution), only the Social Democrats were numerous and well organized enough to pick up the pieces
  2. German Socialists
    •                                                               i.      But German socialists had divided into two groups
    • 1.      Social Democrats favored parliamentary democracy as a gradual approach to social democracy and the elimination of the capitalist system
    • 2.      Minority of German Socialists were disgusted with the Social Democrats’ support of the war and formed their own Independent Social Democratic Party in 1916
  3. 1918
    • a.      1918: the more radical members of the Independent Socialists favored an immediate social revolution carried out by councils of soldiers, sailors, and workers
    •                                                               i.      Led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, these radical, left-wing socialists formed the German Communist Party in Dec. 1918
  4. Two parallel governments
    a.      Two parallel governments were established in Germany: the parliamentary republic proclaimed by the majority Social Democrats and the revolutionary socialist republic declared by the radicals
  5. Unlike Russia's Bolsheviks
    • a.      Unlike Russia’s Bolsheviks, Germany’s radicals failed to achieve control of the government
    •                                                               i.      ending war led moderate socialists to remove dissatisfaction
    •                                                             ii.      when radical socialists tried to take e power, Friedrich Ebert and moderate socialists called on regular army and groups of anti-revolutionary volunteers known as Free Corps to crush the rebels
    • 1.      victorious forces murdered Luxembourg and Liebknecht
  6. similar attempt
    • a.      Similar attempt at Communist revolution in Munch in s. Germany crushed by Free Corps and regular army
    •                                                               i.      German Republic was saved, but only because the moderate socialists relied on traditional army—the same conservatives who had dominated the old imperial regime
  7. second revolution
    •                                                               i.      Moreover, this “second revolution” of January 1919, bloodily crushed yb the republican government, created fear of communism among German middle classes
    • 1.      this would help Hitler 
  8. Austria Hungary
    • a.      Austria-Hungary experienced disintegration and revolution
    •                                                               i.      when it attacked Serbia in 1914, the imperial regime had tried to crush the nationalistic forces that it believed were destroying the empire
    •                                                             ii.      1918: those same nationalistic forces brought complete breakup of Austro-Hungarian Empire
  9. War weariness
    •                                                               i.      as war weariness shook empire, ethnic minorities increasingly sought to achieve national independence
    • 1.      this desire was further encouraged by Allied war aims that included calls for the independence of the subject peoples
  10. By war's end
                                                                  i.      By war’s end, AH Empire was replaced by independent republics of Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia and a new southern Slavic monarchical state was called Yugoslavia
  11. Other regions
    • a.      other regions tried to join Italy, Romania, and Poland
    •                                                               i.      rivalries among nations that succeeded AH would weaken e. Europe
    •                                                             ii.      ethnic pride and national statehood was more important than class difference
    •                                                           iii.      Only in Hungary was there an attempt at social revolution when Bela Kun created communist state, which was crushed