Uses light energy form sun to power a chemical process that builds organic molecules
Chemical ingredients in Photosynthesis
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) = Glucose (C6H12O6)
Chem process that harvests energy that's stored in sugars & other organic molecules
Uses Oxygen Gas (O2) to help convert energy extracted from organic fuel to another source of chem energy called **ATP
Where production of ATP during cellular respiration occurs mainly in these organelles
In both plants & animals
What are the waste products of cellular respiration?
CO2 & H2O
SAME ingrediants used for **Photosynthesis
Animals perform cellular respiration, but not photosynthesis. What performs both?
Process requiring Oxygen
**Ex: Cellular Respiration
Equation for Glucose durig Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 >>> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP
Cellular Respiration: Main Function
Generates ATP for cellular work
Process of Cellular Respiration can produce up to how many ATP molecules for each glucose molecule consumed?
Redox (Oxidation-reduction) reactions
Chem reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another
Loss of electrons during redox reaction
Acceptance of electrons during redox
ADDING electrons is called REDUCTION
Neg charged electrons added to an atom REDUCE amount of pos charge of that atom
Oxygen is reduced during cellular respiration, accepting electrons (& hydrogen) lost from glucose:
Simple Redox Reaction
All-at-once reaction, like reaction of hydrogen & oxygen to form water
Reaction releases large amout of energy as electrons of hydrogen "fall" into their new bonds w/ oxygen.
Difficult for cell to capture such burst of energy & put to useful work.
***QUITE EXPLOSIVE REACTION***
Role of Oxygen in Harvesting Food Energy
In cellular respiration, elecrons "fall" in small steps from food to oxygen, producing water. (Also more CONTROLLED "fall" of electrons) NADH transfers electrons from food to an electron transport chain. Oxygen "pulls" electrons down chain
***Water isn't only thing produced when hydrogen & its bonding electrons change partners from glucose to oxygen; ENERGY is released too!
Why does electron transfer to oxygen release energy?
In redox reactions, oxygen is "electron grabber". **Oxygen atom attracts electrons more strongly than almost any other type of atom
When electrons move from glucose to oxygen, its as tho they're falling.
However, potential energy is unlocked; its attraction of electrons to oxygen that causes "fall" & energy release during cellular respiration
---Transfer of electrons from organic fuel (food) to NAD+ reduces NAD+ to NADH (H represents transfer of hydrogen along w/ electrons)
ELECTRON CARRIER involved in cellular respiration & photosynthesis
Carries electrons from glucose & other fuel molecules & deposits them at top of electron transport chain
Generated during glycolysis & cytric acid cycle
Electron transport chain
Series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
Each member of chain first accepts & then donates electrons
INNER MEMBRANE of Mitochondria
Thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
Plasma Membrane of Prokaryotes
Each link in an electron transport chain is actually a what?
Molecule, usually a protein
During a redox reaction, the addition of electrons is called ______, while removal of electrons is caled ______.
At both organismal & cellular levels, respiration involves taking in gas _____ & expelling the gas ______.
What chemical ingredients do plants require from environment in order to synthesie their own food?
CO2, H2O, & soil minerals
The first molecule from Electron Transport Chain (ETC):
Accepts electrons from NADH.
Thus NADH carries electrons from glucose & other fuel molecules & deposits them at top of the ETC
Electrons cascade down chain, from molecule to molecule, like electron bucket brigade
Finally, molecule at bottom of chain "drops" electrons to oxygen, which picks up hydrogen FORMING WATER
Road Map of Cellular Respiration
A metabolic pathway=Not a single chemical reaction, but a SERIES of reactions (more than 2 dozen); a specific enzyme catalyzes each reaction
3 Main Metabolic Stages of Cellular Respiraton:
Citric Acid Cycle
3 Main Metabolic Stages of Cellular Respiraton: 1.)Glycolysis
Means "splitting of sugar"
**Enzymes are in Cytoplasm
--- FIRST: 6-Carbon glucose molecule splits into two 3-Carbon molecules. Each glucose from split needs ATP molecule
--- THEN: In addition to NADH, glycolysis also makes 4 ATP molecules directly when enzymes transfer phosphate groups from fuel molecules to ADP, PRODUCING net of 2 molecules of ATP per Glucose
---RESULT: 2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid which still holds most energy of Glucose
Conversion of Pyruvic Acid ==> Acetyl CoA
**BEFORE CITRIC ACID CYCLE
--- FIRST: Pyruvid Acid loses carbon as CO2. This is first of waste product shown in breakdown of Glucose. Remaining fuel molecules, each w/ only 2 carbons left, are Acetic Acid (in Vinegar)
--- THEN: Oxidation of fuel generates NADH
--- FINALLY: Acetic Acid is attached to molecule Coenyme A (CoA) to form acetyl CoA. That escorts acetic acid into first reaction of cycle, stripping & recycling it
***This Process Occurs TWICE
3 Main Metabolic Stages of Cellular Respiraton: 2.)Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb's Cycle)
**Enzymes are dissolved in fluid w/in mitochondria
--- FIRST: Acetic acid joins 4-Carbon acceptor molecule to form 6-Carbon product Citric Acid.
--- SECOND: For every acetic acid molecule that enters cycle as fuel, 2 CO2 molecules eventually exit as waste product, Making cycle harvest ENERGY from FUEL in the process
--- THIRD: Some energy is used to produce ATP directly, but cycle captures much more energy in form of ~NADH & FADH2~
--- FINALLY: All carbon atoms that entered as fuel are accounted for as CO2 exhaust, & 4-Carbon acceptor molecule is recycled.
***Completes breakdown of glucose all the way to CO2 (One of waste products of Cell Respir) ALSO TURNS TWICE
Glycolysis & Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb's Cycle) generate a small amount of ATP directly, but they generate much more ATP indirectly, via redox reaction that transfer electrons from fuel molecules to what?
To NAD+, forming NADH
3 Main Metabolic Stages of Cellular Respiraton: 3.)Electron Transport
ETC functions as chem machine that uses energy released by "fall" of electrons to pump Hydrogen ions (H+); Also proteins & other molecules that make up ETCs are embedded w/in inner membrane of mitochondria
This pumping causes ions to be more concentrated on one side than other, then storing potential energy
Electron transport from NADH to oxygen releases=ENERGY ur cells use to make most of their ATP
How the energy previously stored in NADH & FADH2 can be used to generate ATP:
--- NADH & FADH2 transfer electrons to ETC
--- ETC used this energy supply to pump H+ across inner mitochondrial membrane
--- Oxygen pulls electrons down transport chain
--- H+ concentrated on 1 side of membrane rushes back "downhill" thru ATP synthase; this action spins component of ATP synthase (Turbines of DAM)
--- Rotation activates parts of synthase molecule that attach phosphate groups to ADP molecules to generate ATP
ATP synthesis by Direct Phosphate Transfer
Glycolysis generates ATP when enzymes transfer phosphate groups directly from fuel molecules to ADP
What stages of Cell Respir. take place in Mitochondria?
Citric Acid Cycle & Electron Transport
2 molecules of what compound are produced by glycolysis?
2 molecules of what compound actually enter Citric Acid Cycle?
***IN MITCHONDRIA, THEY ACT LIKE TURBINES FROM DAM
-- Protein cluster, found in cellular membrane that uses energy of hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP from ADP
-- Provides port thru which hydrogen ions (H+) diffuse
**ALSO FOUND IN:
Inner membrane of mitochondria
Thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
Plasma membrane of prokaryotes
Poison Cyanide in ETC:
Produces its deadly effect by binding to 1 of protein complexes
When bound there, cyanide blocks passage of electrons to oxygen
Result: No H+ gradient is generated; No ATP made; Cell Stops; Organisms die
______ was the lethal agent in the infamous case of product tampering: The Tylenol murders of 1982 where 7 died in Chicago after ingesting Tylenol capsules laced w/ _______. Perpetrator was never caught
If left untreated, a glucose imbalance can lead to what?
Cardiovascular diseas, coma, & even death
ENERGY FROM FOOD
Some Metabolic routes for use of Carbs, Fats, & Proteins= Fuel for Cell Respir.
**Respiration is versatile metabolic furnace that can "burn" many other kind of food molecules.
Which stage of Cell Respir. ration produces majority of ATP?
Overall Functioning of Cell Respir.:
Generating up to 38 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose (Actual # can very by a few)
How many molecules of ATP can be produced from 1 molecule of glucose during Fermentation?
Summary of ATP yield during Cell Respir.
---Helps u add up ATP molecules
GLYCOLYSIS & CITRIC ACID CYCLE each contribute 2 ATP by Direct Synthesis
The rest of ATP molecules are produced by ATP Synthase Machines, powered by "fall" of electrons from food ==> Oxygen
Electrons are carried from organic fuel to ETCs by NADH & FADH2.
*Each electron pair "dropped" down transport chain from NADH can power synthesis of up to 3 ATP.
*Each pair transferred too an ETC from FADH2 is worth up to 2 ATP
Cells working "w/out oxygen"
Fermentation (IN HUMAN MUSCLE CELLS)
Anaerobic harvest of food energy by some cells
--Relies on Glycolyis= which produces 2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule broken down to Pyruvic Acid
--Cells must consume more glucose fuel per second
--Regenerates NAD+ when NADH drops electron cargo down ETCs to O2, HOWEVER, recycling of NAD+ cn't happen cuz NO O2 to accept electrons
--INSTEAD, NADH disposes electrons by adding to Pyruvic Acid from Glycolysis
Fermentation: Producing Lactic Acid
Glycolysis produces ATP even w/out O2, requiring continuous NAD+ supply to accept electrons from glucose
NAD+ is regenerated when NADH transfers electrons it removed from food to Pyruvic Acid, thereby producing Lactic Acid (or other waste products, depending on species of organism)
Lactic Acid by-product eventually transported to LIVER, where LIVER CELLS convert it back to Pyruvic Acid
What kind of acid builds up in human muscle during strenuous activity?
Exercise physiologists (biologists who study effects of exercise on body) have long speculated about role that ________ Acid plays in muscle fatigue
Who is A.V. Hill & what did he do?
A British biologist; One of the founders of the field of Exercise Physiology & understood Muscle Contraction
--Observed that muscles produce Lactic Acid under anaerobic conditions, WONDERING if Lactic Acid causes muscle fatigue
--Tested Frog Muscles towards CONCLUSION: "Lactic Acid accumulation is primary cause of FAILURE"
***HOWEVER, when it comes to Human Temp, certain individuals who are unable to accumulate Lactic Acid have muscles that fatigue MORE rapidly. Still, the role of lactic acid is not completely figured & still continues to change
Fermentation in Microorganisms
Muscles can't function by Lactic Acid Fermentation for too long, but 2 ATP molecules produced per glucose molecule during Ferm is enough to sustain many microorganisms
Such microbes transform MILK=>CHEESE, SOUR CREAM, YOGURT (Sharp/Sour flavors from Lactic Acid)
Food Industry used Fermentation to produce SOY SAUCE=>SOYBEANS, PICKLE CUCUMBERS, OLIVES, CABBAGE
MEAT PRODUCTS=>SAUSAGE, PEPPERONI, SALAMI
Yeast, a microscopic fungus, is capable of both Cellular Respiration & what?
Fermentation: Producing Ethyl Alcohol
-- If yeast cells are kept in anaerobic environment, they are forced to ferment sugars & other foods to stay alive==PRODUCING Ethyl Alcohol as WASTE PRODUCT instead of Lactid Acid.
-- This Alcoholic Ferm. also releases CO2.
-- The CO2 bubbles from this Ferm. causes bread dough to rise
The oldest known fossils of bacteria date back more than __________, but significant levels of O2 did not accumulate in the atmostphere until about ___________
3.5 billion yrs; 2.7 billion yrs ago
For almost a billion yrs, Prokaryotes must have generated ATP exclusively from what?