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The creation of new words.
Creating a new word by borrowing one from another language e.g. spaghetti
The creation of new words due to scientific advances e.g. Internet
New word creation by adding prefix of suffix to exisiting word e.g. hyper-hypersensitive etc
Creating a new word by combining 2 exisiting words e.g. thumbprint
When 2 seperate words are merged together to form a new word e.g. nettiquette
When an existing word changes class e.g. noun-text changed to to text-verb
When you drop 1 or more syllables to create an abbreviation e.g. demo
Where the first letter of a word stands for the word itself e.g. FBI
Initial letters combine to create a completely new word e.g. NASA
A word that has dropped out of usage e.g. durst-dare
When a word's meaning changes
When new words are created
When a word develops a more positive meaning e.g. tremendous used to mean terrible
When a word develops a negative meaning e.g. hussy used to mean housewife
When the meaning of a word gets wider e.g. bird used to mean a young bird but now means all birds
When a meaning a of a word gets narrower e.g. meat used to mean all food
Adding ess to words such as actor often no longer used due to political correctness
When a word we associate with an object instead of the object's actual name e.g. cash used to mean money box
Sayings that don't make sense if they are literally interpreted e.g. It's raining cats & dogs
Use of alternative word for uncomfortable subjects e.g. passed away
An idiom that has become overused e.g. at the end of the day
When a word makes less impact than it used to e.g. terrible used to mean causing terror
Sentences used to contain a lot more subordinate clauses since 1700 there has been a shift to shorter sentences.
Very popular up until early 19th century when there was a backlash against them.
Very common before 18th century now considered incorrect
Word order change
Word order has changed from verb-subject-object to subject-verb-object
Change in pronunciation
Recieved pronunciation-standard English-prestige accent considered to be socially higher than regional accents
New accent that is beginning to replace RP in certain sections of the media-shares many features of cockney.
Appearance of letters and texts has changed over time.
How have letters changed?
From 1700 -19th century s would be written as f
Until 18th century more capital letters were used compared to present day e.g word the writer wanted to emphasise could be capitalised
How has typeface changed?
Up to mid 20th century-serif typeface used from the sans-serif became popular. Also wider range now used due to technological advances
How has newspaper layout changed?
Wide leading-text isn't close together
Colour & lots of pictures
Range of fonts
What did the printing press do?
Caxton 1476-helped to standardise English
Samuel Johnson 1755 helped to standardise spelling
What is prescriptivism?
An attitude towards language that there are a set of correct linguistic rules that English should follow.
External language change
Change as a result of outside influences e.g. invasion, immigration
Internal language change
Change because of a need for simplification or ease of articulation
Phonological change when sounds are gradually lost from a language
When one sound is affected by the adjacent sound to produce a new pronunciation e.g. hambag
Wrote a Short Introduction to English Grammar 1762-prescriptivist attitude to English
Mid 18th century advocated standardised pronunciation and elocution lessons
Cards to revise language change for A2 English language AQA B