Chapter 25 Metabolism

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dg527
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213377
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Chapter 25 Metabolism
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2013-04-14 12:03:36
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Chapter 25 Metabolism
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Chapter 25 Metabolism
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  1. Define Metabolism:
    • The sum of all the chemical reactions that happen in the body.
    • Some reactions building reactions
    • Others break reactions
  2. Define Catabolism:
    Break complex molecules into simpler ones
  3. Define Anabolism:
    • Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules to form more complex ones
    • Building reactions
  4. What is a nutrient ?
    Chemical substances that the body uses for growth, maintenance, or repair
  5. Name the six main types of nutrients.
    • 1. water
    • 2. carbohydrates
    • 3. proteins
    • 4. lipids
    • 5. vitamins
    • 6. minerals
  6. List some of the roles of water.
    • Medium in which most reactions occur
    • Some reactions water is the
    • -product
    • -reactant
    • -solvent
    • -lubricant
    • -helps maintain body temperature
  7. What are the end-products of the digestion of disaccharides and polysaccharides ?
    • starches (poly), sugars (di), fruit
    • Break them down into monosaccharide's (most famous is glucose) (fructose, galactose)
  8. What is the body’s preferred source of energy for ATP synthesis ?
    glucose is body preferred source of energy for ATP synthesis
  9. Briefly describe the body’s four main uses for glucose.
    • 1. ATP production
    • 2. glycogen (made of glucose molecules hooked together)
    • 3. lipid
    • 4. amino acids
  10. By what mechanism does glucose typically enter body cells ? What hormone usually facilitates the process ?
    • Facilitated Diffusion (uses a carrier molecule, does not need to use ATP)
    • Insulin is the hormone needed to get glucose into the body cells
  11. What is gluconeogenesis ?
    • Forming glucose from things that are not carbohydrates
    • Can turn amino acids or fats into glucose
    • Brain needs a certain amount of glucose to make ATP
  12. Describe three of the body’s main uses for lipids.
    • Energy Storage
    • Protection/Insulation
    • Production of ATP
    • ---Cell membrane made of phospholipids
  13. Are there any fatty acids that the human body cannot synthesize ?
    • Linoleic Acid
    • Linolenic Acid
  14. What are the end-products of the breakdown of neutral fats ?
    • 3 Fatty Acids
    • 1 Glycerol
  15. Can the body synthesize lipids from glucose ?
    yes
  16. Can the body synthesize lipids from amino acids ?
    yes
  17. What are the end-products of the digestion of proteins ?
    Amino Acids
  18. How does the body use amino acids that are produced by digestion ?
    • Synthesize new body proteins for growth
    • Deaminate it
    • Store it as lipid
  19. Can the body store excess amino acids ?  What happens to excess amino acids ?
    • Not in the form of amino acids
    • Convert it to glucose or convert it to lipid
  20. Distinguish between essential and nonessential amino acids. (20 of them)
    • Essential: The ones that are essential to be in your diet
    • (have to eat)
    • Nonessential: You can make them from other sources (amino acids, lipids)
  21. Describe the area of the brain which is involved in controlling food intake
    • Hypothalamus
    • Thought to have 2 regions controlling food intake
    • 1. 
    • 2. foumous center (tell body full)
  22. Identify some substances that signal the brain that fullness is attained.
    • Distension of the GI tract
    • Blood glucose level
    • Hormones: (glucogon), CCK (from stomach), estrogens, leptin (from adipose tissue)
  23. Identify some substances that increase appetite.
    • growth hormone
    • androgens
    • glucocorticoids (when stressed)
    • progesterone
  24. What is a mineral ?
    Inorganic elements that occur naturally in the earths crust
  25. Name six important minerals and describe how they are used by the body.
    • 1. Calcium: bones, muscle contraction
    • 2. Phosphorous: bone tissue
    • 3. Iron: RBC hemoglobin
    • 4. Iodine: thyroid hormone
    • 5. Magnesium: ATP synthesis
    • 6. Sodium: controls water balance, buffers, nerve impulse
  26. Define vitamins.
    Organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism.
  27. Generally speaking, how do most vitamins function ?
    as coenzymes
  28. Can the body make any vitamins ?
    • Technically no.
    • Vitamin K in intestine
    • Vitamin D can be assembled if building blocks in diet
  29. What are the two main groups of vitamins ?
    • Fat soluble (A,D,E,K)
    • Water Soluble (B, C)
  30. Which type of vitamins can be stored by cells ?
    Fat Soluble Vitamins can be stored in fatty tissue in body (can be toxic)
  31. List six vitamins and describe how they are used by the body.
    • 1. Vitamin D: To absorb Calcium and phospherous from GI tract
    • 2. Vitamin K: Involved in clotting
    • 3. Vitamin A: used to make epithelial cells, visual pigments
    • 4. Vitamin C: Collogen formation, in many enzymes
    • 5. Vitamin B: Niacin to make NAD (needed to make ATP), Riboflavin to make FAD (carrier takes electrons to electron transport chain)
    • 6.

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