PSYCH 1200

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PSYCH 1200
2013-04-14 16:20:10
Chapter 11

Motivation and Work
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  1. Motivation
    A need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour
  2. Instinct
    A complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
  3. Drive-reduction Theory
    The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
  4. Homeostasis
    A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
  5. Incentive
    A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour
  6. Hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's pyramid of human needs

    Beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first  be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
  7. Glucose
    the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger
  8. Set point
    The point to which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and lower metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
  9. Basal Metabolic Rate
    The body's resting rate of energy expenditure
  10. Anorexia Nervosa
    An eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet stilling feeling fat, continuing to starve
  11. Bulimia Nervosa
    An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive excercise
  12. Binge-eating Disorder
    significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia
  13. Sexual Response Cycle
    The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - Excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
  14. Refractory Period
    A resting period after orgasm, during which a man can not achieve another orgasm
  15. Sexual Disorder
    A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
  16. Estrogens
    Sex hormones such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics.
  17. Testosterone
    Most important of male sex hormones
  18. Sexual Orientation
    An enduring sexual attraction towards members of either the opposite sex or same sex
  19. Flow
    A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's own skills
  20. Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
    the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces
  21. Personnel Psychology
    a subfield of I/O  psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
  22. Organizational Psychology
    A subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
  23. Structured Interviews
    Interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
  24. Achievement motivation
    a desire for  significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas
  25. Task Leadership
    Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
  26. Social Leadership
    Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support