Frequently Noted Signs and Symptoms of Disease Conditions

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Frequently Noted Signs and Symptoms of Disease Conditions
2013-04-14 17:37:23
Foundations Nursing

Table 5-1
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  1. Lack of appetite resulting in the inability to eat. This symptom can occur in many disease conditions.
  2. A condition of debility, loss of strength and energy, and depleted vitality.
  3. A circulation condition in which the myocardium contracts steadily but at a rate of less than 60 contractions per minute.
  4. Difficulty of passing stools or an incomplete or infrequent of hard stools. There are many causes, both organic and functional.
  5. A sudden audible expulsion of air from the lungs. Is an essential protective response that serves to clear the lungs, the bronchi, and the trachea of irritants and secretions and to prevent aspiration of foreign material into the lungs. It is a common sign of diseases of the larynx, the bronchi, and the lungs.
  6. Bluish discoloration of the skin and the mucous membranes caused by an increase of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.
  7. The secretion of sweat, especially the profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, exposure to heat, and mental or emotional stress.
  8. Frequent passage of loose, liquid stools; generally results from increased motility in the colon. This is usually a sign of an underlying disorder. The characteristics of the diarrhea give evidence as to the source. Dark, black, tarry stools sometimes means there is bleeding in the intestines. Bright red blood in the feces indicates bleeding from the lower portion of the intestinal tract.
  9. A shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing that is sometimes caused by certain heart and lung conditions, strenuous exercise, or anxiety.
  10. Discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane caused by the extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissues as a result of trauma to the underlying blood vessels or by fragility of the vessel walls. (also called bruise)
  11. An abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces. Some causes include overhydration, excess sodium intake, capillary hyperpermeability, and loss of serum albumin (a protein), which causes fluid to leave the vessels and collect in the interstitial space. Skin that is edematous will be taut and shiny. Pitting sometimes occurs when the skin is pressed; small indentation will remain after the finger is removed.
  12. Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes that is the result of dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries; is seen in mild sunburn.
  13. An abnormal elevation of the temperature of the body above 98.6°F (37°C) because of disease; also called pyrexia. It results from an imbalance between the elimination and production of heat. Infection and many different diseases often lead to febrile condition, or elevated temperature.
  14. Pertaining to something that has a foul, putrid, or offensive odor. Also called malodorous.
  15. The protective response of the t issues of the body to irritation or injury.
  16. Yellow tinge to the skin; often indicates obstruction in the flow of bile from the liver.
  17. The state or quality of being indifferent, apathetic, or sluggish.
  18. A sensation often leading to the urge to vomit. Common causes include intense pain, gallbladder disease, inflammation of the stomach, paralytic ileus, and food poisoning.
  19. An abnormal condition in which a person has to sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably. Occurs in many disorders of the respiratory and cardiac systems.
  20. An unpleasant sensation caused by noxious (extremely destructive or harmful) stimulation of the sensory  nerve endings. It is a cardinal symptom of inflammation and is valuable in the diagnosis of many disorders and conditions. Has varied manifestations; mild or severe, chronic, acute, burning, dull or sharp, precisely or poorly localized, or referred.
  21. An unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin; often results from a decrease in hemoglobin and erythrocytes (red blood cells).
  22. A symptom of itching and an uncomfortable sensation leading to an urge to scratch. Some causes are allergy, infection, jaundice, elevated serum urea, and skin irritation.
  23. A creamy, viscous , pale yellow or yellow-green fluid exudate that is the result of fluid remains of liquefied necrosis of tissues. Bacterial, infection is the most common cause. The character of the pus, including its color, consistency, quantity, or odor, often has diagnostic significance.
    Purulent drainage (pus)
  24. Pertaining to an unhealthy, yellow color; usually said of a complexion or skin.
  25. The color of the sclera is yellow. This jaundice is due to coloring of the sclera with bilirubin that infiltrates all tissues of the body.
    Scleral icterus
  26. An abnormal condition in which the heart contracts regularly but at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute. The heart rate accelerates in response to fever, exercise, or nervous excitement.
  27. An abnormally rapid rate of breathing seen in many disease conditions.
  28. To expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth. The quality of the vomitus often gives a clue to underlying cause. "Coffee-ground" vomitus indicates bleeding in the stomach. The blood takes on a coffee-ground appearance because of the effect of the digestive juices. Vomiting of bright red blood is potentially a sign of gastric hemorrhage.