PSYCH 1200

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xx.chelsii
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213484
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PSYCH 1200
Updated:
2013-04-14 18:51:35
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Chapter 16
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Social Psychology
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  1. Social Psychology
    The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
  2. Attribution Theory
    The theory that we explain someone's behaviour by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
  3. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behaviour, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
  4. Attitude
    Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
  5. Central Route to Persuasion
    Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
  6. Peripheral Route to Persuasion
    Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as speaker's attractiveness
  7. Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
    The tendency for people to who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
  8. Role
    A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
  9. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    • The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
    • For Example: when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
  10. Conformity
    Adjusting one's behaviour or thinking to coincide with a group standard
  11. Normative Social Influence
    Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
  12. Informational Social Influence
    Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others opinions about reality
  13. Social Facilitation
    Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
  14. Social Loafing
    The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal then when individually accountable
  15. Deindividualization
    The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
  16. Group Polarization
    The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
  17. Groupthink
    The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
  18. Prejudice
    An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and it's members
  19. Stereotype
    A generalized, sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized belief about a group of people
  20. Discrimination
    Unjustifiable negative behaviour toward a group and its members
  21. Ingroup
    "us" - people with whom we share a common identity
  22. Outgroup
    "Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
  23. Scapegoat Theory
    The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
  24. Other-race effect
    the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
  25. Just-world Phenomenon
    Tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
  26. Aggression
    A physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt or destroy
  27. Frustration-Agression Principle
    The principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate agression
  28. Mere Exposure Effect
    The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increase liking of them
  29. Passionate Love
    An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relatonship
  30. Companionate Love
    the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
  31. Equity
    A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
  32. Self-Disclosure
    Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  33. Altruism
    Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
  34. Bystander Effect
    Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
  35. Social Exchange Theory
    The theory that our social behaviour is an exchange process, the aim to which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
  36. Reciprocity Norm
    An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
  37. Social-Responsibility Norm
    An expectation that people will help those dependant on them
  38. Conflict
    A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
  39. Social Trap
    A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behaviour
  40. Mirror-Image Perceptions
    Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical, and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
  41. Superordinate Goals
    Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
  42. GRIT
    Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction: a strategy designed to decrease international tensions

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