The Heart part 1

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Wesleypjones
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213486
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The Heart part 1
Updated:
2013-04-14 18:19:04
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Heart part
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The Heart part 1
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  1. mediastinum
    the heart lies in this anatomical region that extends  from the sternum to the vertebral column, the first rib to the diaphragm and between the lungs
  2. apex
    the pointed part of the heart is formed by the tip of the left ventricle and rests on the diapragm
  3. base
    is the hearts posterior surface.  it is formed by the atria (upper chambers) of the heart, mostly the left atrium
  4. anterior surface
    is deep to the sternum and ribs
  5. inferior surface
    is the part of the heart between the apex and right border and rests mostly on the diaphragm
  6. right and left borders
    the right faces the right lung and extends from the inferior surface to the base.  The left faces the left lung and extends from the base to the apex
  7. pericardum
    the membrane that surrounds and protects the heart. It confines the heart to its position in the mediastinum, while allowing sufficient freedom of movement for vigorous and rapid contraction.
  8. Fibrous pericardium
    is composed of tough, inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue. It resembles a bag that rests on and attaches to the diaphragm.  It prevents outstretching of the heart, provides protection and anchors the heart in the mediastinum
  9. serous pericardium
    is deeper and thinner, more delicate membrane  that forms a double layer around the heart.
  10. Pericardial fluid
    found between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium is a thin film of lubricating serous fluid which is slippery secretion of the pericardial cells.  It reduces friction between the layers of the serous pericardium as the heart moves.
  11. epicardium
    the external layer of the heart wall it is thin and transparent and composed of mesothelium and delicate connective tissue that imparts a smooth, slippery texture to the outermost surface of the heart.
  12. myocardium
    the middle layer of the heart wall, which is cardiac muscle tissue, makes up about 95% of the heart and is responsible for its pumping action.  The cardiac muscle is involuntary.  Its muscle fibers swirl diagonally around the heart in bundles
  13. endocardium
    the innermost layer of the heart wall.  It is a thin layer of endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissue.  It provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart and covers the valves of the heart.  It minimizes surface friction as blood passes through the heart and blood vessels.
  14. atria
    the two superior receiving chambers
  15. ventricles
    the two inferior pumping chambers
  16. auricles
    on the anterior surface of each atrium is wrinkled pouch like structure.  Each one slightly increases the capacity of an atrium so that it can hold more blood.
  17. sulci
    are on the surface of the heart.  A series of grooves that contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.  Each sulcus marks the external boundary between two chambers of the heart.
  18. the right atrium
    forms the right border of the heart and receives blood from three veins.
  19. interatrial septum
    between the right atrium and the left atrium is a thin partition
  20. tricuspid valve
    blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle through a valve that is called this. Because it consists of three leaflets or cusps
  21. Right ventricle
    forms most of the anterior surface of the heart.
  22. chordea tendinea
    the cusps of the tricuspid valve are connected to tendon like cords, which in turn are connected to cone shaped trabeculae cornea called papillary muscles
  23. papillary muscles
    coned shaped trabeculae cornea
  24. interventricular septum
    internally the right ventricle is separated from the left ventricle by this partition

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