hw questions G4

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hw questions G4
2013-04-14 18:18:31
genetics exam

hw questions exam 4
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  1. what are the differences between the nucleotides of RNA and the nucleotides of DNA?
    • RNA has ribose sugar which has 2 hydroxyl groups on the 2' C
    • RNA uses uracil as a base for the same purpse as thymine is used as a base in DNA.
  2. which end of RNA transcript corresponds to the DNA sequence closest to the gene's promoter?
    A. 3' end
    B. 5' end
    B. 5' end
  3. For this segment of mRNA
    write sequence of template DNA strand
    write sequence of template coding DNA stand
  4. Compair prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription in terms of the structure of the promoter
    • the structure of their promoters is different
    • Prokaryotes have a -10 and -35 box to form their promoter
    • Eukaryotes have a core promoter containing the TATA box at -25, a regulatory promoter, and enhancers and silencers
  5. compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription in terms of how the polymerase interacts with the promoter
    • Prokaryotic transcription RNA polymerase directly binds the DNA
    • Eukaryotic transcription basal transcription factors bind the promoter and then RNA polymerase binds
  6. compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription in terms of what the initial product of transcription is
    • Eukaryotes- RNA processing, transcription produces primary transcript (pre-mRNA)
    • Prokaryotes- immediate production of transcription is mRNA
  7. what type of RNA does polymeraseII produce?
    rRNA genes
  8. what type of RNA does polymerase III produce?
    mRNA genes and snRNA genes
  9. what type of RNA does polymerase 4 produce?
    5sRNA and tRNA genes
  10. in alternate splicing what is different between the alternate splice products?
    they differ in the choice of exons to be included in the mRNA
  11. what are the 3 parts needed to specify the correct splicing of an intron?
    • 5' consensus sequence
    • 3' consensus sequence
    • branch point
  12. the 3' end of an mRNA molecule correspons to the _____ terminus of the polypeptide it encodes
  13. if you align a polypeptide sequence next to the gene that encodes it, which end of the polypeptide would line up closest to the promoter?
    amino terminus
  14. Define 3' UTR
    • UTR stands for untranslated region. untranslated regions are portions of the mRNA that are not translated
    • mRNA after the stop codon until the 3'end
  15. Define 5'UTR
    mRNA between the 5'end and the start codon.
  16. what part of tRNA forms base pairs with mRNA?
  17. during translation amino acids are added to the ___ end of the growing polypeptide
  18. suppose that you have isolated the DNA of a gene and want to predict what type of protein it encodes. is the sequence of the polypeptide encoded by the gene predicted by reading the DNA sequence of the coding strand or the non coding strand?
    coding strand
  19. in an aminoacyl tRNA (charged tRNA) to what part of the tRNA is the amino acid attached?
    3' end
  20. at initiation of translation, in which site of the ribosome is the start codon located?
    A site
  21. name and describe the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation
    • The eukaryotic ribosome needs the 5' cap and the polyA tail for assembly onto the mRNA
    • Eukaryotic mRNA have the kozak sequence surrounding start codon instead of Shine-delgarno
    • There is no f-met in eukaryotes
    • Translation occurs in separate compartment than transcription; it is in cytoplasm or on surface of endoplasmic reticulum