MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials V-1

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kyleannkelsey
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials V-1
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2013-04-14 18:38:04
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MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials V-1
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  1. Aztreonam is what type of b-lactam?
    Monobactam
  2. Aztreonam has how many rings?
    1 ring
  3. Aztreonam losses what activity due to a loss of one ring?
    Gram positive activity
  4. What makes aztreonam unique?
    It only has one ring
  5. What B-lactam only has one ring?
    Aztreonam
  6. What is aztreonam active against?
    Aerobic gram negative bacteria
  7. What kind of stability does aztreonam have against b-lactamases?
    Some stability but not to all
  8. Aztreonam is inactive against what type of B-lactamases?
    AmpC b-latamases
  9. Carbepenems have what level potency?
    Most potent b-lactams
  10. What has teh highest level of potency of all B-lactam drugs?
    Carbapenems
  11. What relative level of spectrum do Carbapenems have?
    Very broad
  12. What are the four Carbapenems availbale?
    • Imipenem
    • Meropenem
    • Ertapenem
    • Doripenem
  13. What group of drugs do Iripenem, Meropenem, Doripenem and Ertapenem belong to?
    Carbapenems
  14. What other type of molecule is similar to a Carbapenem?
    Penicillin
  15. What is the major difference between Carbapenems and Penicillins (molecularly)?
    A carbon instead of a sulfur (on carbepenem)
  16. What is the net charge of carbepenems?
    no net charge
  17. What three Carbapenims have similar spectrums of activity?
    • Imipenem
    • Doripenem
    • Meropenem
  18. What are Imipenem, Meropenem and Doripenem all naturally active against?
    • Enterobacteriaceae
    • Neisseris
    • H. influenzae
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Acinetobacter
    • Anaerobes except clostridium
  19. What anaerobe does Imipenem, doripenem and meropenem not have activity against?
    Clostridium
  20. What was the first Carbepenem?
    Iripenem
  21. What is the reason for giving cilastatin with Imipenem?
    To prevent DHP-1 renal enzymes from breaking down Imepenem to a toxin
  22. What drug do you give with Imipenem to prevent real breakdown and toxicity?
    Cilastatin
  23. What Carbepenum has issues with seizures due to high doses, and poor renal function?
    Imipenem
  24. Meropenem has a similar spectrum to Imipenem, except:
    • It is less active towards gram positives
    • more active against some gram negatives
  25. Doripenem has what spectrum?
    • Gram positive = similar to Imipenem
    • Gram negatives = similar to meropenem
  26. Ertapenem hsa what special features?
    • long half life
    • Similar spectrum to meropenem
    • BUT poor activity against pseudomonas and acinetobacter
  27. What Carbapenem has a long half-life and can be dosed once a day?
    Imipenem
  28. Doripenem is more potent against what?
    Gram + and Gram - than Imi or Meropenem
  29. What is the advantage for Ertapenem?
    It can be used on an outpatient basis
  30. What is the safety profile for Carbapenems?
    Very safe
  31. Carbapenems are bacteriostatic or cidal?
    Bacteriocidal
  32. What does T>MIC mean?
    • The time above the MIC
    • Expressed in a percent based on the treatment time
  33. A lower percent for T>MIC is better or worse?
    Better, meaning it has effects sooner
  34. What does it mean when you have a larger percent for T>MIC?
    You have an antibiotic that takes longer to have an effect
  35. What is the relative T>MIC of Carbapenems (bacteriostatic)?
    Low (20%)
  36. What is the T>MIC for bacteriostatic effects on average for Penicillins and Cephalosporins ?
    30-40%
  37. Do Cephalosporins or Carbapenems have a lower T>MIC?
    Carbapenems
  38. Why are Carbapenems more potent?
    • There are only 20 molecules of PBP2 in each e.coli
    • So, you need less Carbapenem to have an effect
  39. Which type of B-lactam drug attacks PBP2?
    Carbapenems
  40. Carbapenems are active against what molecule?
    PBP2

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