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  1. What does achievement test measure?
    Ability (anywhere from general to specific ability)
  2. Accountability movement (what is it, when did it happen, and why?)
    • When: 50s and 60s
    • What: Pushed schools to be responsibe for their product
    • Why: Sputnik (race to space) and we lost for the first time
  3. Characteristics of achievement test batteries
    • System of many interrelated tests
    • Lots of supplementary information and scoring reports for the test batteries, lots of interpretative booklets
    • Very good norming procedures
    • Multiple choice and some additional measures
    • All achievement batteries depend on same sources of information for their content
  4. Licensing versus certification
    • Certification- statement that level of proficiency has been attained, but does not necessarily imply the right to do anything
    • Licensing – legal grant from government agency to practice
  5. What is principle concern of licensing?
    Only requires minimal level of knowledge
  6. TIMMS basics
    • Trends In International Science and Mathematics (TIMMS) 30-40 countries, science and math grades 4-8
    • Does not report individual scores
    • Group summaries (entire country comparisons)
  7. What type of validity most related to achievement tests?
    Content validity
  8. Uses of objective personality tests
    • Clinical – standardized assessment of personality traits, also forensic (related to legal proceedings)
    • Counseling – can help build rapport and direction for therapy
    • Personnel selection – identify specialties or problem employees
    • Research Purposes – helps personality theories, need research to have applications for test, also can see how two traits correlate with one another
  9. Classifying objective personality tests
    • Scope of coverage (comprehensive vs. specific domain)
    • Orientation (normal vs. abnormal)
  10. Response sets and how to deal with them
    • Tendency to respond in certain ways
    • Socially desirable responses: friendly, drugfree
    • Acquiescence - people tend to say yes
    • Nay-sayer -tendency to disagree
    • Check responses with extreme empirical frequencies
    • Consistency on same or similar items
    • Balancing direction of items
    • Forced choice items matched on relevant variable (equally social desirable)
  11. Content method for developing personality tests
    • Content method: what do we want to measure?
    • Pro’s: Simplicity, easy to generate items, good dace validity
    • Con’s: easy to distort and fake
    • Primary method for specific tests but not comprehensive
  12. Pro’s and con’s of criterion-keying approach
    • Pro’s: direct, very empirical
    • Con’s: Limits generalizability of interpretation, need well defined groups, need to know overlap of groups for interpretation.
  13. NEO and basics of the facets and domains
    • 240 items, self rating Likert scale
    • Also other rater and short form (60 items)
    • Old version had 3 dimensions but found 2 more, each has 6 facets with 8 items.
    • No formal validity indexeso
    • Did you answer the questions honestly
    • Norms from 500 men, 500 women, matched to U.S. norms.
    • .86-.92 internal reliability
    • Would facets have higher or lower reliability and why? Lower due to number of items
  14. Positive Psychology
    • What is positive psychology?
    • Above 0; no symptoms
    • Hope, bravery, prudence, vitality, wisdom, optimism, humor, spirituality
    • Most self- report, good internal consistency, concentrates on one area
  15. Clinical interviews: traditional vs. structured
    • Categories: Mood disorders, psychotic symptoms, psychotic disorders, substance abuse disorders, anxiety, and other disorderso
    • Record Basic Information, start with category of interesto
    • Ask questions about symptomso
    • Record responses and code responses (+, -, ?)
    • Follow skip out rules (discontinue when they will not have enough sxs)
    • Complete diagnostic summary at endo
    • About an hour to give (3 to give all)
    • Not only source of information (MMPI-2, BDI-II)
  16. Original MMPI: what were unique aspects and problems (Cross validate)
    • (1942)
    • Came out of response to content based scaleso
    • Face validity and interpretation problems
    • Validity indexes, criterion-keying approach
    • Normed on 724 hospital visitorso
    • Problems with restricted norm base and small number in norming group
    • Also did not cross validate (very important for criterion-keying method)
  17. MMPI-2 Revisions
    • 1. Some items revised (obsolete, gender-specific)
    • 2. Clinical scales by number, not name (because of misconceptions of labels)
    • 3. New norms developedo
    • 4. Several new validity scaleso
    • 5. T-scores for elevation lowered from 70 to 65
  18. MMPI-2 Validity Scales
    • (?)           Cannot say       Incomplete
    • F              Infrequency     Faking bad
    • L              Lie                  Faking good
    • K             Correction        Defensiveness
    •                (K also corrects several scales H + .5K, 7, 8, 9 + K)
    •                 Inflates scores based off of defensiveness
    • VRIN      Consistency, pairs of items
    • TRIN       Yea-saying or nay-saying
    • FB          Fake bad (back)          Covers content areas
  19. MMPI-2 Clinical Scales
    • 1     Hs    Hypochondriasis
    • 2     D     Depression
    • 3     Hy   Hysteria
    • 4     Pd    Psychopathic Deviate
    • 5     Mf    Masculinity/Femininity
    • 6     Pd    Paranoid
    • 7     Pt     Psychasthenia
    • 8     Sc    Schizophrenia
    • 9     Ma    Hypomania
    • 0     Si     Social Introversion
  20. MMPI-2 Content Scales
    • Nonempirical items, content based
    • Large list of supplementary scales
    • Critical items, what would be an example of an item that should be mentioned regardless of overall score?
    • Code types: special note of highest peak in profile, 2-point if 2 within 5 or each other and no other scales within 5.
    • Lots of research on these code types
  21. Norms of MMPI-2
    • Normed off of 1138 men and 1462 women (2600)
    • Good norming but over represents higher education, more professional occupations
    • Internal Consistency: alpha test-retest
    • Validity Scales: weak
    • Clinical: weak
    • Content: strong
  22. MCMI and connection with the DSM
    • MCMI: aligns scores with the DSM
    • MCMI-III has 175 items, takes 25 minutes
    • Uses base rates scores (assumes 10% malingering)
    • Overlapping scales (elevates multiple scales at once)
    • Difficulties trying to parallel imperfect DSM system
    • Has same weaknesses as DSM and gets outdated quickly with revisions of DSM
  23. Beck Depression Inventory
    • 21 items, 5-10 minutes, 0-3 scores
    • 0-13     minimal
    • 14-19   mild
    • 20-28   moderate
    • 29+      severe
    • Everyone is depressed according to the scale, just different severitieso
    • Alpha = .92
    • Test-retest = .93
    • What are the problems?§  High face validity
  24. Eating Disorder Inventory
    • EDI-3
    • 91 items, relates directly to eating disorderso  
    • Normed with clinical eating disorder sample
  25. State Trait Anxiety Inventory
    • Special in that it distinguishes between state and trait anxiety
    • What is the difference?
    • State – in this moment, are you anxious
    • Trait – in general, are you anxious
  26. Experience sampling method
    Random beeps and behavior recording
Card Set:
2013-04-14 23:22:47

Quiz #4
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