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2010-05-31 12:11:15
patho biology cell

PathoPhysiology Exam One
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  1. what is the decrease or shrinkage in cellular size?
  2. ________ atrophy occurs as a result of decreases in workload, pressure, use, or blood supply?
    Pathologic atrophy
  3. _______ atrophy occurs with early development.
    Physiologic atrophy
  4. an increase in the size of cells and consequently in the size of the affected organ.
  5. an increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division.
  6. abnormal changes in the size, shape, and organization of mature cells. Can be precancerous and occurs in inflammed tissue. Not considered a true adaptive process.
  7. the reversible replacement of one mature cell with another cell, that is sometimes less differentiated. Thought to be a reprogramming of stem cells. is seen as an adaptive process.
  8. the naming or identification of a disease.
  9. the expected outcome of a disease.
  10. develops slowly and the signs and symptoms last for a long time, perhaps for life.
    Chronic disease
  11. sudden appearance of signs and symptoms that last only a short time.
    acute disease
  12. periods when the symptoms disappear or diminish significantly.
  13. periods when the symptoms become worse or more severe.
  14. the onset of a disease in a person who already has an existing disease. ex: infection after a surgery.
  15. time during which no symptoms are readily apparent in the affected person, but the disease is nonetheless present in the body.
    latent period
  16. a group of symptoms that occur together and may be caused by several interrelated problems or a specific disease.
  17. an abnormality of function; can refer to an illness or a particular problem such as epilepsy or a bleeding disorder. forever present.
  18. of a disease is the number of new cases occuring within a specific time.
  19. of a disease is the number of existing cases within a population during a specific period.
  20. increase the probability that disease will occur, but these factors are NOT the cause of the disease.
    risk (predisposing) factors
  21. condition or event that DOES cause a pathologic event or disorder. Ex: exertion can cause pain.
    precipitating factors
  22. contain no membrane-bound organelles, no nucleus. single cells. single circular DNA (one chromosome). Ex: cyanobacteria and bacteria.
  23. have membrane-bound organelles, an actual nucleus. could be single or multicellular organisms. Histone proteins coil DNA. man chromosomes.
  24. cave-like indentations on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. they serve as a storage site for many receptors and provide a route for transport into the cell.
  25. Condition in which a person's blood pressure suddenly falls when the person stands up. it is caused by gravity-induced blood pooling in the lower extremities, which compromises venous return. Results in decreased caridiac output and lowering pressure.
    Orthostatic Hypotension
  26. What type of cells are neurons and cardiac muscle cells?
    Permanent cells
  27. what type of cells are liver, smooth and skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone, and endothelium cells? - they are slow unless stimulated.
    Stable cells
  28. what type of cells are epidermal, GI, spermatozoa, and blood cells? - continous, often by stem cells.
    Labile cells
  29. unlike inflammation, it is a disease. the system has gotten hung up, and instead of protecting our bodies it starts to kill us, slowly. the root cause of heart disease and cancer.
    Chronic Inflammation
  30. when connective tissue is formed to heal things like cuts. Dead cells, collagen, fibroblasts.
  31. neoplasic tumor which is similar to its cell of origin. It is encapsulated, has slow growth, little to no vasculature, seldom recur, do not spread.
    Benign Tumors
  32. neoplastic tumor that is cancerous, poorly differentiated, invades, fast growth, marked vasculature, often recur, metastic (spreading).
    Malignant tumor
  33. process of cancer cells seperating from the original tumor and spreading to other organs.
  34. a decrease of Oxygen in various parts of the body, or whole.
  35. swelling- caused by H20, glycogen, fatty acids, Ca++ accumulates.
  36. irregular bulging on plasma membrane.
  37. extreme hypoxia- total lack of oxygen
  38. restriction of the blood supply.
  39. refers to damage to tissue caused when blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of ischemia (restricted blood supply).
  40. complete blood blockage by clot
  41. the sudden change in cell leading to loss of function and resulting in autodigestion. It is premature, not nomal and beneficial like apoptosis. 1)affects groups of cells 2)caused by injurious agent 3)decreases ATP 4)cells swell 5)inflammatory response
  42. programmed cell death. Suicide, beneficial, natural. 1)single or few cells 2)increase energy 3)cells shrink 4) no inflammatory response 5)DNA is broken down by endonucleases
  43. cell injury type that: 1) cell swells 2)ribosomes detach 3)loss of micrvilli 4)blebbing 5)chromatin clumping 6) Oxygen must be returned 7) decreased membrane potential and pH.
    Reversible Cell Injury
  44. type of cell injury that: 1) digests proteins 2) lysosomal enzyme release 3) membrane digestion 4) leakge of cell enzymes and proteins 4) no oxygen is returned 4) can trigger inflammatory response 5 ) loss of membrane 6) aka necrosis
    Irreversible Cell Injury
  45. process of necrosis w/ nuclear dissolution and chromatin lysis
  46. a necrosis process where the nucleus clumps.
  47. necrosis process w/ nuclear fragmentation
  48. necrosis of the kidneys, heart, and adrenal glands. Loss of nuclei and cell, but architecture of cell remains.
    Coagulative Necrosis
  49. necrosis of neurons and glial cells of the brain. Bacterial infection. Hydrolytic enzymes produce proteinaceous soap.
    Liquefactive Necrosis
  50. necrosis with a cheese-like granular appearance. Most associated w/ tuberculous pulmonary infection. Combination of coagulative and liquefacive necrosis.
    Caseous necrosis
  51. necrosis of the breast, pancreas, and other abdominal organs. Action of lipses to saponify (convert fat into soap) fats.
    fat necrosis
  52. necrosis from the death of tissue due to severe hypoxic injury.
    gangrenous necrosis
  53. line of defense with physical, mechanical, and biochemical barriers. Ex: Skin, saliva, GI tract, sweat, tears, etc.)
    First line of defense
  54. line of defense that involves inflammation.
    Second line of defense
  55. line of defense that is acquired as a respones to a disease/ injury.
    Third line of defense
  56. What are the cardinal signs of Inflammation
    - heat, paint, redness, loss/altered function, swelling
  57. watery exudate; indicates early inflammation
    Serous exudate
  58. thick, clotted, exudate: indicates more advanced inflammation.
    Fibrinous exudate
  59. pus in the exudate- indicates bacterial infection
    Purulent exudate
  60. exudate that contains blood- indicates bleeding.
    Hemorrhagic Exudate
  61. What is the vascula response to inflammation:
    • vasodilation- widening of blood vessels
    • vascular permeability- ions, water, nutrients, even cells.
    • WBC adhesion and infiltration
  62. inflammation that lasts a few minutes to a few days w/ exudate rich in neutrophils and some macrophages. fever. increased WBC circulation.
    Acute Inflammation