MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-1

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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-1
2013-04-14 22:07:32
MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials VI

MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-1
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  1. How is red man syndrome caused?
    To fast of a vancomycin infusion
  2. What XDR TB?
    Extremely drug resistant TB
  3. What are the bacterial ribosomal subunit sizes?
    • 50S
    • 30S
  4. What are the ribosomal subunit sizes in humans?
    • 60S
    • 40S
  5. Aminoglycosides include what three major antibiotics?
    • Gentamicin
    • Tobramycin
    • Amikacin
  6. What ways are Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Amikacin administered?
    IM and IV
  7. the ending -micin implies what?
    Synthetic Aminoglycoside
  8. The ending -mycin implies what?
    Natural Aminoglycoside (produced by an organism)
  9. What ending means "synthetic aminoglycoside"?
  10. What ending means "natural aminoglycoside"
  11. Amikacin is not as potent as what?
    Tobramycin and Gentamycin
  12. Why is Amikamycin used?
    It has a different resistance spectrum than gentamicin and Tobarmyin
  13. What is the downside of Streptomycin?
    Very toxic
  14. What can Streptomycin be used for?
    • TB
    • Yersinia Pestis
  15. When treating with neosporin, what should you be aware of?
    Neomycin is in the formulation and can enter the body causing toxic effects
  16. What aminoglycoside should mostly be usedused topically due to toxic effects?
  17. Aminoglycosides are used in combination with penicillins synergistically to treat what?
    Enterococcal endocarditis
  18. Enterococcal endocarditis requires what antibiotics?
    An aminoglycoside and Penicillin
  19. What physical features does an Aminoglycoside have?
    • Amine groups
    • Cyclic sugars
  20. What antibiotic group is made of cyclic sugars and amine groups?
  21. What determines potency of an aminoglycoside?
    Amine groups
  22. What indicates greater toxicity in Aminoglycosides?
    More amine groups
  23. What is the spectrum of Aminoglycosides?
    Very broad against Gram + and - bacteria
  24. What makes Aminoglycosides unique?
    They are Bactericidal not bacteriostatic like other protein synthesis ihibitors
  25. What is the mechinism of Aminoglycoside?
    Protein synthesis inhibitors
  26. What is the mechanism of Bactericidal activity for Aminoglycosides?
    • Not known
    • We know they disrupt the membrane, causing lysis, but we don't know why this happens
  27. Why do we not know why Aminoglycosides have bactericidal activity?
    It happens too quickly
  28. The action of Aminoglycosides is growth phase dependant or independent?
  29. What are the mechanisms of resistance to Aminoglycosides?
    • inactivating enzymes
    • Efflux (reduced accumulation)
  30. What is the toxicity relative level of Aminoglycosides?
    • Very toxic
    • Toxicity is only a little above the therapeutic level
  31. What type of toxic effects do Aminoglycosides have?
    Ototoxic and Nephrotoxic
  32. What ototoxic route of toxicity is taken by Aminoglycosides?
    8th cranial nerve is damaged
  33. What should you be monitoring during Aminoglycoside use?
    Renal function and Aminoglycoside levels
  34. Aminoglycosides are accumulative, what does this mean?
    • You can carry the Aminoglycosides in your body for a lifetime.
    • The quantity in your body keep sbuilding up
  35. What was Spectinomycin used for?
    Penicillin resistant-Gonorrhea
  36. What type of general antimicrobial activity does Spectinomycin have?
  37. Why might we have to go back to using Spectinomycin?
    Extremely resistant Gonorrhea strains
  38. What Aminoglycoside is an Aminocyclitol?
  39. What is the injection amount of Spectinomycin for males?
    2 gram
  40. What is the injection amount for Spectinomycin for females?
    1 gram
  41. Spectinomycin is not good for people with repeated STDs?
    It causes renal disease, so can't use repeatedly
  42. What are the four Inhibitors of protein synthesis that are bacteriostatic?
    • Tetracyclines
    • Macrolides
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Lincosamides
  43. Lincosamides, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides and Tetracyclines are all similar in that they attack what cellular component?
    Ribosomal subunits
  44. Lincosamides, Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Chloramphenicol all are similar be cause they have what general antimicrobial activity?
    Bacteriostatic (usually)