MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-1
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How is red man syndrome caused?
To fast of a vancomycin infusion
What XDR TB?
Extremely drug resistant TB
What are the bacterial ribosomal subunit sizes?
What are the ribosomal subunit sizes in humans?
Aminoglycosides include what three major antibiotics?
What ways are Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Amikacin administered?
IM and IV
the ending -micin implies what?
The ending -mycin implies what?
Natural Aminoglycoside (produced by an organism)
What ending means "synthetic aminoglycoside"?
What ending means "natural aminoglycoside"
Amikacin is not as potent as what?
Tobramycin and Gentamycin
Why is Amikamycin used?
It has a different resistance spectrum than gentamicin and Tobarmyin
What is the downside of Streptomycin?
What can Streptomycin be used for?
When treating with neosporin, what should you be aware of?
Neomycin is in the formulation and can enter the body causing toxic effects
What aminoglycoside should mostly be usedused topically due to toxic effects?
Aminoglycosides are used in combination with penicillins synergistically to treat what?
Enterococcal endocarditis requires what antibiotics?
An aminoglycoside and Penicillin
What physical features does an Aminoglycoside have?
- Amine groups
- Cyclic sugars
What antibiotic group is made of cyclic sugars and amine groups?
What determines potency of an aminoglycoside?
What indicates greater toxicity in Aminoglycosides?
More amine groups
What is the spectrum of Aminoglycosides?
Very broad against Gram + and - bacteria
What makes Aminoglycosides unique?
They are Bactericidal not bacteriostatic like other protein synthesis ihibitors
What is the mechinism of Aminoglycoside?
Protein synthesis inhibitors
What is the mechanism of Bactericidal activity for Aminoglycosides?
- Not known
- We know they disrupt the membrane, causing lysis, but we don't know why this happens
Why do we not know why Aminoglycosides have bactericidal activity?
It happens too quickly
The action of Aminoglycosides is growth phase dependant or independent?
What are the mechanisms of resistance to Aminoglycosides?
- inactivating enzymes
- Efflux (reduced accumulation)
What is the toxicity relative level of Aminoglycosides?
- Very toxic
- Toxicity is only a little above the therapeutic level
What type of toxic effects do Aminoglycosides have?
Ototoxic and Nephrotoxic
What ototoxic route of toxicity is taken by Aminoglycosides?
8th cranial nerve is damaged
What should you be monitoring during Aminoglycoside use?
Renal function and Aminoglycoside levels
Aminoglycosides are accumulative, what does this mean?
- You can carry the Aminoglycosides in your body for a lifetime.
- The quantity in your body keep sbuilding up
What was Spectinomycin used for?
What type of general antimicrobial activity does Spectinomycin have?
Why might we have to go back to using Spectinomycin?
Extremely resistant Gonorrhea strains
What Aminoglycoside is an Aminocyclitol?
What is the injection amount of Spectinomycin for males?
What is the injection amount for Spectinomycin for females?
Spectinomycin is not good for people with repeated STDs?
It causes renal disease, so can't use repeatedly
What are the four Inhibitors of protein synthesis that are bacteriostatic?
Lincosamides, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides and Tetracyclines are all similar in that they attack what cellular component?
Lincosamides, Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Chloramphenicol all are similar be cause they have what general antimicrobial activity?
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