MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-3

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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-3
2013-04-14 23:01:14
MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials VI

MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VI-3
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  1. What does pharmacologically better mean?
    Better absorption and tissue distribution
  2. What is the hal-life of Clarithromycin/Azithromycin?
    68 hours
  3. What protein synthesis inhibitor has a half life of 68 hours?
    Azithromycon and Clarithromycin
  4. What are advantages of Clarithromycin and Azithromycin over Erythromycin?
    • Better pharmacologically
    • Better oral absorption
    • longer half life of elimination
    • less gastric disturbances
  5. What protein synthesis inhibitor leaves an unpleasant taste in the mouth (metallic)?
  6. Erythromycin has what adverse effect?
    Upset stomach in some
  7. What is the spectra of activity for Azithromycin?
    • H. influenzae
    • Mycobacteria
  8. Does Clarithromycin have improved H. influenzae action?
  9. What are the downsides of Azithromycina nd Clarithromycin?
    More expensive
  10. What are the two mechanisms of Macrolide resistance?
    • Modification of antibiotic transport
    • Modification of target
  11. Which type of Macrolide resistance is inducible?
    Modification of antibiotic transport
  12. Which type of Macrolide resistance is constitutive?
    Modification of the target
  13. What macrolide resistance mechamisn provides only moderate resistance?
    Modification of antibiotic transport
  14. What macrolide resistance mechanism provides a high level of resistance?
    Modification of the target
  15. What is the modfaction made to modify the target (to create macrolide resistance)?
    Methylation of ribosomal subunit
  16. What is the spectrum of Chloramphenicol?
  17. What inhibitor of protein synthesis is lipid soluble?
  18. Why can Chloramphenicol access the humors of the eye and CSF well?
    It is lipid soluble
  19. What is a good protein synthesis inhibitor for meningitis for penicillin allergic patients?
  20. Chormaphenicol antagonizes what what other general type of drugs?
  21. What specific bacteria does chloramphenicol have action against?
    • H. Influenzae
    • S. pneumoniae
    • N. Meningitidis
    • Salmonella typhi
    • Bacteriocides fragilis
  22. What antibiotic can be used for very serious conditions of Salmonella typhi and Bacteriodes fregilis?
  23. What are the adverse effects of Chloramphenicol?
    • Fatal aplastic anaemia
    • Shut down bone marrow and kills
    • Gray baby syndrome
  24. What are the predictable factors taht predispose a patient to Chloramphenicol adverse reactions?
    None = idiosyncratic
  25. What time period do adverse reactions to chloramphenicol occur?
    Any time, even when not taking the drug
  26. What protein synthesis inhibitor can cause Haematological abnormalities?
  27. What drug can cause aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome and Fatality ?
  28. What is Gray baby syndrome?
    underdeveloped liver leads to free drug accumulation and the baby turns gray
  29. What symdrome causes green stools and gray skin in infants?
  30. What proportion f babies die once showing signs of Gray baby Syndrome?
  31. What are the 2 types of Haematological toxities?
    Suppression and Aplasia
  32. Chloramphenicol causes problems in most patients (T/F)?
  33. Licomycin was discovered where?
    soil in nebraska
  34. Clindamycin is related to lincomycin how?
    It is a synthetic derivative
  35. Clindamycin can commonly cause what deadly problem?
    pseudomemranous colitis due to Clostridium Difficle
  36. What drug can cause pseudomembranous colitis by C. difficile?
  37. Is Clindamycin and alternative for Erythromycin?
    No, not an alternative
  38. Clindamycin is used by what group instead of Erythromycin?
  39. What conditions do you use Clindamycin?
    • Bacteriodes fragilis
    • CHRONIC staphylococcal osteomyelitis
    • Community acquired MRSA
  40. What antibiotic would you use to treat community aquired MRSA, CHRONIC staphylococcal osteomyelitis and Bacteriodes fragilis?
  41. What is Glycycline a derivative of?
  42. What is Tigecycline a derivative for?
  43. What bacteria are susceptible to Tigecycline?
    • MRSA
    • VRE
    • Acinetobacter
    • Enterobacteriacease
  44. What is the general spectrum of Tigecycline?
    Very good Gram - and Gram +
  45. Tigecycline has good tissue infiltration (T/F)?
    False, you get low tissue levels
  46. What should you not use Tigecycline against?
    P. aeruginosa and Proteus