MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-1

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kyleannkelsey
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-1
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2013-04-15 00:02:05
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MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials VII
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-1
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  1. What was the first oral antibiotic for MRSA and pseudomonas?
    Flouroquinolones
  2. What atypical activity does flouroquinolones have?
    • Chlamydia
    • Mycoplasma
    • Legionella
  3. Flouroquinolones are found where in nature?
    • Nowhere
    • They are purely synthetic
  4. The structure-activity relationship for flouroquinolones is not well understood (T/F)?
    True
  5. What is the general spectrum of Flouroquinolones?
    Very broad
  6. What are Flouroquinolones poor at?
    Anerobes and Acinetobacter
  7. Ciprofloxacin is most active against what?
    Wild type gram negatives
  8. What Flouroquinolones are best against gram positives?
    Moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin
  9. Enhancements in flouroquinolones have been mostly toward what group of bacteria?
    Gram positives
  10. The development of flouroquinolones has been to increase potency against what bacteria?
    Gram positives
  11. What is the potency of flouroquinolones?
    Very very potent
  12. What level of resistance is found against flouroquinolones?
    Fairly high
  13. Why did resistance develop to flouroquinolones?
    Overuse of a ciprofloxacin, the most easy flouroquinolone to develop resistance to
  14. What are the clinical uses of Flouroquinolones?
    • UTI
    • RI
    • STDs
    • GI infections
    • SST
    • Osteomyeltis
  15. What is the mechanism of killing for Flouroquinolones?
    • Inhibit DNA synthesis
    • Greater affinity for bacterial DNA than human DNA
  16. Why do Flouroquinolones attack DNA synthesis of bacteria and not humans?
    Much greater affinity for bacterial DNA
  17. What investigational areas have flouroquinolones been used for?
    Cancer drugs
  18. Flouroquinolones are bactricidal and growth independant or dependant?
    Independant
  19. Flouroquinolones are bactericidal or Bacteriostatic?
    Cidal
  20. What pathway do quinolones attack?
    SOS
  21. What are the primary targets of the quinolones in Gram negative cells?
    DNA gyrase
  22. What are the primary target of quinolones in Gram positive bacteria is?
    • DNA gyrase
    • Topoisomerase IV
    • Topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase are primary targets for quinolones in what type of bacteria?
    • Gram positive
  23. DNA gyrase alone is a primary target for Flouroquinolone sin what type of bacteria?
    gram negative
  24. The primary target is always the same for all gram + and - bacteria?
    Depends on the bacteria and drug
  25. What conditions make for resistance to flouroquinolones?
    only one target in a cell (only DNA gyrase)
  26. What makes resistance more difficult in terms of flouroquinolones?
    Two targets (topoisomerase and gyrase)
  27. Stopping DNA gyrase causes what?
    • the DNA becomes too tight to be opened by helicase
    • Replication stops
    • The bacterium dies
  28. What is catenated?
    Two daughter strands are still attached
  29. What does Topoisomerase do?
    Separates the two daughter chromosomes of bacteria
  30. What was the first Flouroquinolone?
    Naladixic acid
  31. Which flourquinolone is actually not one?
    Naladixic acid
  32. Norfloxacin has what that increase activity?
    Flourine and extra ring
  33. What antibiotic has a flourine and an ring (compared to Naladixic acid)?
    Norfloxacin
  34. What came out of Norfloxacin?
    Ciprofloxacin

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