MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-1
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What was the first oral antibiotic for MRSA and pseudomonas?
What atypical activity does flouroquinolones have?
Flouroquinolones are found where in nature?
- They are purely synthetic
The structure-activity relationship for flouroquinolones is not well understood (T/F)?
What is the general spectrum of Flouroquinolones?
What are Flouroquinolones poor at?
Anerobes and Acinetobacter
Ciprofloxacin is most active against what?
Wild type gram negatives
What Flouroquinolones are best against gram positives?
Moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin
Enhancements in flouroquinolones have been mostly toward what group of bacteria?
The development of flouroquinolones has been to increase potency against what bacteria?
- What is the potency of flouroquinolones?
- Very very potent
What level of resistance is found against flouroquinolones?
Why did resistance develop to flouroquinolones?
Overuse of a ciprofloxacin, the most easy flouroquinolone to develop resistance to
What are the clinical uses of Flouroquinolones?
- GI infections
What is the mechanism of killing for Flouroquinolones?
- Inhibit DNA synthesis
- Greater affinity for bacterial DNA than human DNA
Why do Flouroquinolones attack DNA synthesis of bacteria and not humans?
Much greater affinity for bacterial DNA
What investigational areas have flouroquinolones been used for?
Flouroquinolones are bactricidal and growth independant or dependant?
Flouroquinolones are bactericidal or Bacteriostatic?
What pathway do quinolones attack?
What are the primary targets of the quinolones in Gram negative cells?
What are the primary target of quinolones in Gram positive bacteria is?
- DNA gyrase
- Topoisomerase IV
- Topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase are primary targets for quinolones in what type of bacteria?
- Gram positive
DNA gyrase alone is a primary target for Flouroquinolone sin what type of bacteria?
The primary target is always the same for all gram + and - bacteria?
Depends on the bacteria and drug
What conditions make for resistance to flouroquinolones?
only one target in a cell (only DNA gyrase)
What makes resistance more difficult in terms of flouroquinolones?
Two targets (topoisomerase and gyrase)
Stopping DNA gyrase causes what?
- the DNA becomes too tight to be opened by helicase
- Replication stops
- The bacterium dies
What is catenated?
Two daughter strands are still attached
What does Topoisomerase do?
Separates the two daughter chromosomes of bacteria
What was the first Flouroquinolone?
Which flourquinolone is actually not one?
Norfloxacin has what that increase activity?
Flourine and extra ring
What antibiotic has a flourine and an ring (compared to Naladixic acid)?
What came out of Norfloxacin?
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