MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-2

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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-2
2013-04-15 00:21:34
MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials VII

MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials VII-2
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  1. Where are resistance to flouroquinolone coded?
  2. What type of coding for resistance against Flouroquinolones developed recently?
    Plasmid mediated
  3. What are qnr genes?
    plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes
  4. How do qnr genes protect bacteria?
    protect Type II topoisomerases from flouroquinolones
  5. How do bacteria protect themselves against quiolones other than qnr?
    • decreased porins into the cytoplasm
    • efflux
  6. What altered targets have developed against flouroquinolones?
    • DNA gyrase
    • Topoisomesase
  7. What is QRDR?
    Quinolone resistance determining region
  8. Whay is QRDR important :
    most resistance genes here
  9. Streptococcus pnemoniae has lots of little resistance to flouroquinolones?
    very little
  10. Why is Streptococcus resistance so minimal to flouroquinolones?
    • Not used in children
    • Children is where resistance develops
    • Could cause joint problems
  11. What group are flouroquinolones not used for?
  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae is not very resistant to what?
  13. How do you prevent resistnace?
    • More potent drugs
    • Drugs with pharmacokinetcis (higher concentrations in the body)
  14. P. aeruginosa has what unique feature for pathogens?
    Huge genome
  15. Why will Pseudomonas develop resistance quickly to flouroquinolones?
    It develops resistance quickly to everything because of its large geneome
  16. What type of therapy should be used for Pseudomonas?
    Combination (due to resistance factors)
  17. Why should you give combination therapies to rid of pseudomonas infections?
    it develops resistance so easily
  18. Carbapenem and flouroquinolone is a good combination therapy for what?
  19. Why is Cabapenem and flouroquinolone an important combination in the lab?
    It prevents the development of resistance
  20. Are Flouroquinolones safe?
    • Somewhat
    • They have rare adverse effects
  21. What are the rare effects of flouroquinolones?
    • may feel stimulated like caffeine
    • phototoxicity
    • cardiotoxicity
    • tendotoxicity
    • arthropathy
    • CNS toxicity
  22. What is the rate of adverse drug reactions for flouroquinolones?
    9.2 :10,000
  23. What drugs have fewer adverse reactions?
    Cephalosporins and macrolides
  24. What antibiotics have more adverse reactions?
    • penicillins
    • Clindamycin
    • vancomycin
  25. Flouroquinolones may cause what colonization?
    MRSA and C. diff