Neurology

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Anonymous
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213596
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Neurology
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2013-04-15 12:41:54
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Spring '13
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  1. Circulation Pathway of Cerebral Spinal Fluid
    • Lateral Ventricles
    • 3rd ventricle 
    • 4th ventricle
    • Subarachnoid space
    • Inferior Space of the cerebrum
    • Superiorly over lateral aspects of each hemisphere
  2. Ventricular System (3 parts)

    Name and describe the location
    • Circulation system of cerebrospinal fluid
    • Lateral Ventricles: 
    • ~C-shaped
    • ~intraventicular foramen
    • 3rd Ventricle
    • ~Small slit btw thalmi
    • ~connected by aqueduct of sylvius (cerebral aqueduct)  
    • 4th Ventricle
    • ~Anterior to cerebellum
    • ~posterior to pons
    • ~superior half of medulla
  3. 4 functions of cerebral spinal fluid
    • Protect from direct trauma
    • regulate intracranial pressure
    • nourish nervous tissue
    • remove waste product
  4. Myastenia Gravis 
    a) describe pathophysiology
    • muscular weakness on sustained effort 
    • failure in neuromuscular transmission after continuous muscle contraction
  5. Myastenia Gravis 
    b) Affect on Speech Muscles
    • Larynx and palate first affect by disease
    • VF dont close approximate (breathy and weak)
    • Soft palate weakness (Hypernasal)

    * As speech deteriorates tongue, lips and and muscles become more involved
  6. Multiple Sclerosis 

    Symptoms and Pathophysiology
    Disorder of Myelin 

    • Autoimmune inflammation that destroys myelin sheath 
    • Irreversable neurological defects with fluctuation of exerbation and remission 

    50% have Dysartheria (neuromuscular Sp. Disorder)
  7. Briefly describe the overall function of the spinal nerve
    • Motor Nerve Cells
    • Convey motor signals to body from CNS
    • Gather sensory input from body for CNS processing 
    • Carry both sensory and motor fibers
  8. Briefly define the following terms in their association with the spinal chord

    a) 2 ventral roots of the spinal chord
    Anterior/ Ventral Roots

    • Motor Nerve Cells 
    • - Efferent/ motor fibers

    • Carry info from CNS 
    • -originate in anterior/ventral horn (motor nucleui)
  9. Briefly define the following terms in their association with the spinal chord

    b) 2 dorsal roots of the spinal chord
    Dorsal/ Posterior Roots 

    • Sensory nerve cells
    • - Afferent sensory fibers 
    • -through sensory root fibers 

    • Carry information to CNS 
    • - touch 
    • - pain 
    • - temp
    • - viberation
  10. Describe the 3 meningeal membranes of the brain
    • Dura:
    • - Adheres to innerskull composed of 2 fused layers (periosteal & meneugeal) which split to form sciences

    • Arachnoid: 
    • - Attaches to dura in living condition (no subdural space)
    • -Subarachoid space with several cisterns

    • Pia: 
    • - Adheres to surface of brain with extension within depth of sulci
    • -Follows vessels as the picture cerebral cortex
  11. Describe the 3 meningeal membranes of the Spinal Chord
    • Dura:
    • -Separates vertebrae by potential epidural space composed of only menengeal layer (vertebrae have their own peristeum)

    • Arachnoid:
    • -Attaches to dura in living condition (no subdural space)
    • -Subarachnoid space with sacral cisterns 

    • Pia:
    • -Adheres to surface of chord specialization in the form of delicate ligaments 
    • - Filum terminate follows vessels as they pierce the chord
  12. Describe Chemical and electrical events related to impulse transmission, beginning with resting potential and ending with generation of action potential
    • -70 (Resting potential)
    • -60 (Action potential)
    • 30 (Depolarization)
    • .5 mil sec (Absolute refraction period)
    • -80
  13. How many Cranial Nerves are there?

    And what are their names?
    12 Cranial Nerves 

    • I. Olofactory
    • II. Optic
    • III. Oculomotor
    • IV. Trochlear
    • V. Trigeminal
    • VI. Abducens
    • VII. Facial
    • VIII. Vestibulo-Acoustic
    • IX. Glossopharyngeal
    • X. Vagus
    • XI. Spinal Accessory 
    • XII.Hypoglossal
  14. How many Cranial Nerves are dedicated to Speech and Hearing functions?

    Which ones are they?
    • 7 Speech and Hearing Cranial Nerves 
    • V. Trigeminal  
    • VII. Facial 
    • VIII. Vestibulo-Acoustic
    • IX. Glossopharyngeal
    • X. Vagus
    • XI. Spinal Accessory
    • XII. Hypoglossal
  15. Cranial Nerve 5 

    Name and Function
    Trigeminal Nerve 

    Motor Function: Innervation of muscles for mastication

    Sensory function: Facial touch, temp, and pain including tooth pulp sensation, cornea, and extraocular structures
  16. Cranial Nerve 7

    Name and Function
    Facial Nerve 

    Motor Function:Innervation of all face muscles except those for mastication

    Sensory Function:Taste and sensation from anterior 2/3 of tongue 

    Parasympathedic Function: Innervation of lacrimal and salivary glands
  17. Cranial nerve 8 

    Name and Function
    Vestibulo-occular Nerve 

    Sensory: Hearing and the vestibular based sense of motion 

    At brainstem level this is a combination of 2 sensory nerves (Auditory and Vestibular)
  18. Cranial Nerve 9

    Name and Function
    Glossopharyngeal Nerve 

    Motor Function: Innervation of pharyngeal musculature 

    Sensory Function: Taste and sensation from posterior 1/3 of tongue and sensation of pharynx

    Parasympathedic Function: Innervation of parotid glands
  19. Cranial Nerve 10

    Name and Function
    Vagus Nerve

    Motor Function: Innervation of Larynx, Pharynx, and Soft palate 

    Sensory Function: Visceral sensation form abdominal and thoracic organs, larynx and pharynx; taste from posterior tongue and pharynx input related to stress-related hormones and immune system factors

    Parasympathetic Function: Innervation of cardiovascular system, pulmonary system, and gastrointestinal system
  20. Cranial Nerve 11

    Name and Function
    Spinal Accessory 

    Motor Function: Innervation of two motor neck muscles, the trapezius and the sternomastoid
  21. Cranial Nerve 12

    Name and Function
    Hypoglossal

    Motor Function: Innervation of the tongue
  22. Describe the overall function of the Autonomic Nervous System
    ANS: Innervation of involuntary structures  (Heart, Smooth Muscles, Glands)

    Speech and hearing indirectly related
  23. How many pairs of Spinal Nerves?
    -Cervical 
    -Thoracic
    -Lumbar
    -Sacral
    -Coccygeal
    • (8) Cervical
    • (12) Thoracic
    • (5) Lumbar
    • (5) Sacral
    • (1) Coccygeal
  24. Describe the systematic function
    a) sympathetic 
    b) parasympathetic

    And its impact on Speech production and perception
    • Sympathetic "fight or flight"
    • -accelerated heart rate
    • -constriction of blood vessels
    • -raise blood pressure
    • -redistributes blood 
    • -raise eyelids dialates pupils
    • -closes sphincters
    • -decreases peristalis (intestine contractions)

    • Parasympathedic "Calm down"
    • -opposite of sympathedic

    • Impact on Sp. Production: Voice changes
    • -Breathing patterns 
    • -voice (frequency&intensity)
    • -Articulation (intelligibility)

    • Impact on Speech Perception: Hearing
    • -ability to process info is either heightened of deminished
  25. Arteries involved in Circle of Willis
    • Anterior Communicative Artery
    • Posterior communicative Artery

    • Anterior Cerebral Artery
    • Middle Cerebral Artery
    • Posterior cerebral Artery

    Internal Corotid artery
  26. Axon
    Moves nerve impulses away from neuron
  27. Cell Body
    Responsible for cellular metabolism
  28. Dendrites
    Receives impulses
  29. Myelin Sheath
    • Controls Na+ and K+ channels  on axon
    • (increase speed of reaction)
  30. Nucleus
    Hold information to make repairs
  31. Post synaptic receptor area
    Collects data and transmits to next impulse area
  32. Synapse
    the point of transmission btw axon and another neuron, muscle, or gland
  33. Synaptic Cleft
    Space btw axon and receiver
  34. Terminal Bouton
    • Knob
    • Releases neuro transmitters into synaptic cleft to alternative receptor site
  35. Scheme of cortical organization 
    Left
    Verbal
  36. Scheme of cortical organization 
    Right
    Nonverbal
  37. Scheme of cortical organization 
    Anterior
    Motor
  38. Scheme of cortical organization 
    Posterior
    Sensory
  39. Clinical Significance of 
    Circle of Willis
    • Brains safety valve
    • - Allows for blood to flow to all areas of the brain even if there is a blockage

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