Sociology chap. 8 social stratification

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Sociology chap. 8 social stratification
2013-04-15 11:46:42

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  1. social stratification
    a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy, so that some people have more money, power, and prestige than others
  2. characteristics of social stratification
    • a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences
    • carries over from one generation to the next
    • supported by a system of cultural beliefs that defines certain kinds of inequality as just
    • takes 2 general forms: caste systems and class systems
  3. caste system
    • based on birth (ascription)
    • permit little or no social mobility
    • shape a person's entire life, including occupation and marriage
    • common in traditional, agrarian societies
  4. class systems
    • based on both ascription and meritocracy
    • permit some social mobility
    • common in modern industrial and postindustrial societies
  5. socioeconomic status (SES)
    • a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality
    • measure power, prestige or social status, and economic class
  6. meritocracy
    social stratification based on personal merit
  7. social mobility
    a change in position within the social hierarchy
  8. Davis-Moore thesis
    • social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society
    • the greater the functional importance of a position, the more rewards a society attaches to it
  9. Oscar Lewis
    concluded that the poor become trapped in a cultural of poverty, a lower-class subculture that can destroy people's ambition to improve their lives
  10. Structural-functional: social stratification
    • macro-level
    • stratification is a system of unequal rewards that benefits society as a whole
    • social position reflects personal talents and abilities in a competitive economy
    • unfair rewards boost economic production by encouraging people to work harder and try new ideas. linking greater rewards to more important work is widely accepted
  11. Social-conflict:social stratification
    • macro-level
    • stratification is a division of a society's resources that benefits some people and harms others
    • social position reflects the way society divides resources
    • unequal rewards only serve to divide society, creating "haves" and "have-nots". there is widespread opposition to social inequality
  12. Symbolic-interaction: social stratification
    • micro-level
    • stratification is a factor that guides people's interactions in everyday life
    • the products we consume all say something about social position
    • people may or may not define inequality as fair. people may view their social position as a measure of self-worth, justifying inequality in terms of personal differences
  13. relative property
    the lack of resources of some people in relations to those who have more
  14. absolute property
    a lack of resources that is life-threatening