Card Set Information
Golgi type I are aka? Characteristics?
Golgi type II characteristics?
projection neurons- have long axons that synapse with nerves innervating muscles or glands.
local circuit neurons with short axons that synapse with nearby neurons within CNS
which are myelinated? Golgi I or II?
neurons that travel away from the NS and cause movement of muscle or gland?
neurons that carry info toward the NS from peripheral structures?
an atom that carries an electrical charge due to gaining or losing electrons
when an neuron is at rest, there is a greater concentration of ______ ions outside the cell and a higher proportion of ______ ions within the cell
an imbalance of sodium creates a voltage across the cell membrane known as
resting membran potential
in order to generate a nerve impulse, the RMP must be disturbed or ________
when a cell membrance once again reverts to the negatively charged state ______
when an ______ occurs, the neuron is said to have "fired" and a nerve impulse is generated
AP- action potential
in order for a nerve to generate an AP or "fire" it must reach ________
critical threshold of about 40mV at the axon hillock
this occurs when separate inputs reach the cell membrane with slight time differences
this refers to the addition of impulses arriving at slightly different locations on the cell body or dendrites
once a nerve has fired, there is a brief period of time it cannot be stimulated, no matter how strong the impulse. This is...
absolute refractory period
neurons can fire about ____ times per second
the neurotransmitter can have one of two actions- what are they?
lower the threshold making it easier to fire-excitatory post synaptic potential
raise the threshold-inhibitory post synaptic potential
the inflow of ______ ions lowers the threshold allowing an EPSP to occur
the inflow of _______ ions raises the threshold alowing a IPSP to occur
neurotransmitters are either
excitatory or inhibitory
these are large myelinated fibers, sensory and motor, with conduction rates of 120 meters/second
type A nerves
these are smaller myelinated fibersthat conduct at 3-14 meters/second
type B nerves
these are the slowest conducting fibers without myelin covering
this forms a protective sistem of tissue and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord
whatare the meningeal layers outer in inner most?
dura, arachnoid, pia
this is a tough outer covering of the brain
this brain covering has a web-like structure.
does it have any blood vessels?
this is a thin, highly vascular tissue that closely follows the the outline of the brain
between the the dura mater and arachnoid is the _______; between the arachnoid and pia is the _______ which is filled with _________
subdural space; subarachnoid space, CSF
this is produced by specialized cells within the four ventricles of the brain
this clear fluid contains proteins, glucose and lymphocytes which help prevent infection
this creates a byouant fluid filled shock absorbing system for the brain
how many ventricles?
how many lateral venrticles?
what are the other ventricles?
4; 2; third and fourth
the two lateral ventricles connect to the 3rd by way of
the 3rd and 4th ventricles connect by
the specialized cells that produce CSF are
choriod plexus cells
adults produce about _____-______ CSF a day
the brain is divided into ____ hemispheres
2- left and right
the outermost layer of the brain is made up of _____ which is commonly known as ______ ______
cortex; grey matter
the inner mass of the brain is the ________ which is referred to as _______ ________
cerebrum; white matter
what are the subcortical areas?
basal nuclei or ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus
this is located immediately behind the cerebrum
this is immediately below the cerebrum
cerebellum; brain stem
the brainstem consists of:
midbrain, pons, medulla
this part of the brain is continuous with the spinal cord
the _____ is the outer convering of the brain and is extermely convoluted.
The raised surfaces are ______; the lowered are _________
cortex; gyri; sulci
the brain convolutions are important bc?
increases surface size of the cortex without increasing space to house it
what divides the brain into 2 hemis?
the longitudinal fissure
what separates the anterior brain from the posterior?
the central sulcus
what deliniates the superior and inferior regions of the brain?
the lateral fissure
it is what two landmarks that demarcate the brain into four major lobes?
central sulcus and lateral fissure
what are the four major lobes
frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
there is an additional lobe that cannot be seen on the surface of the brain
most of the cortex in the brain is of a type known as? it appeared when in human development?
what does it allow?
neocortex; late; talk, think abstractly, plan, organize
in general, the left hemi performs _______ functions; the right perfroms _______
linear functions; holistic
the left hemi is dominant in ______ processing
the right is more involved with
language; emotional expression