shs 13.2

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shs 13.2
2013-04-15 11:49:22

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  1. Golgi type I are aka? Characteristics?
    Golgi type II characteristics?
    • projection neurons- have long axons that synapse with nerves innervating muscles or glands.
    • local circuit neurons with short axons that synapse with nearby neurons within  CNS
  2. which are myelinated? Golgi I or II?
    golgi I
  3. neurons that travel away from the NS and cause movement of muscle or gland?
  4. neurons that carry info toward the NS from peripheral structures?
  5. an atom that carries an electrical charge due to gaining or losing electrons
  6. when an neuron is at rest, there is a greater concentration of ______ ions outside the cell and a higher proportion of ______ ions within the cell
    positive; negative
  7. an imbalance of sodium creates a voltage across the cell membrane known as
    resting membran potential
  8. in order to generate a nerve impulse, the RMP must be disturbed or ________
  9. when a cell membrance once again reverts to the negatively charged state ______
  10. when an ______ occurs, the neuron is said to have "fired" and a nerve impulse is generated
    AP- action potential
  11. in order for a nerve to generate an AP or "fire" it must reach ________
    critical threshold of about 40mV at the axon hillock
  12. this occurs when separate inputs reach the cell membrane with slight time differences
    temporal summation
  13. this refers to the addition of impulses arriving at slightly different locations on the cell body or dendrites
    spatial summation
  14. once a nerve has fired, there is a brief period of time it cannot be stimulated, no matter how strong the impulse. This is...
    absolute refractory period
  15. neurons can fire about ____ times per second
  16. the neurotransmitter can have one of two actions- what are they?
    • lower the threshold making it easier to fire-excitatory post synaptic potential
    • raise the threshold-inhibitory post synaptic potential
  17. the inflow of ______ ions lowers the threshold allowing an EPSP to occur
  18. the inflow of _______ ions raises the threshold alowing a IPSP to occur
  19. neurotransmitters are either
    excitatory or inhibitory
  20. these are large myelinated fibers, sensory and motor, with conduction rates of 120 meters/second
    type A nerves
  21. these are smaller myelinated fibersthat conduct at 3-14 meters/second
    type B nerves
  22. these are the slowest conducting fibers without myelin covering
    type  C
  23. this forms a protective sistem of tissue and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  24. whatare the meningeal layers outer in inner most?
    dura, arachnoid, pia
  25. this is a tough outer covering of the brain
    dura mater
  26. this brain covering has a web-like structure.
    does it have any blood vessels?
    arachnoid space

    no vessels
  27. this is a thin, highly vascular tissue that closely follows the the outline of the brain
    pia mater
  28. between the the dura mater and arachnoid is the _______;  between the arachnoid and pia is the _______ which is filled with _________
    subdural space; subarachnoid space, CSF
  29. this is produced by specialized cells within the four ventricles of the brain
  30. this clear fluid contains proteins, glucose and lymphocytes which help prevent infection
  31. this creates a byouant fluid filled shock absorbing system for the brain
  32. how many ventricles?
    how many lateral venrticles?
    what are the other ventricles?
    4; 2; third and fourth
  33. the two lateral ventricles connect to the 3rd by way of
    interventricular foramen
  34. the 3rd and 4th ventricles connect by
    cerebral aqueduct
  35. the specialized cells that produce CSF are
    choriod plexus cells
  36. adults produce about _____-______ CSF a day
    450-500 ml
  37. the brain is divided into ____ hemispheres
    2- left and right
  38. the outermost layer of the brain is made up of _____ which is commonly known as ______ ______
    cortex; grey matter
  39. the inner mass of the brain is the ________ which is referred to as _______ ________
    cerebrum; white matter
  40. what are the subcortical areas?
    basal nuclei or ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus
  41. this is located immediately behind the cerebrum
    this is immediately below the cerebrum
    cerebellum; brain stem
  42. the brainstem consists of:
    midbrain, pons, medulla
  43. this part of the brain is continuous with the spinal cord
  44. the _____ is the outer convering of the brain and is extermely convoluted. 
    The raised surfaces are ______; the lowered are _________
    cortex; gyri; sulci
  45. the brain convolutions are important bc?
    increases surface size  of the cortex without increasing space to house it
  46. what divides the brain into 2 hemis?
    the longitudinal fissure
  47. what separates the anterior brain from the posterior?
    the central sulcus
  48. what deliniates the superior and inferior regions of the brain?
    the lateral fissure
  49. it is what two landmarks that demarcate the brain into four major lobes?
    central sulcus and lateral fissure
  50. what are the four major lobes
    frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
  51. there is an additional lobe that cannot be seen on the surface of the brain
  52. most of the cortex in the brain is of a type known as? it appeared when in human development?
    what does it allow?
    neocortex; late; talk, think abstractly, plan, organize
  53. in general, the left hemi performs _______ functions; the right perfroms _______
    linear functions; holistic
  54. the left hemi is dominant in ______ processing
    the right is more involved with
    language; emotional expression