Biology FInal

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jeryhou
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Biology FInal
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2010-05-31 00:02:35
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  1. Characteristics of life
    • use/need energy
    • grow/develop
    • are composed of cells
    • have the ability to reproduce
    • maintain stable internal conditions
    • are organized
  2. The study of life
    Biology
  3. scientific method (in order)
    • observations
    • hypothesis
    • predictions
    • experiment
    • conclusion
  4. that group that lacks the independent variable
    control group
  5. data with numbers
    Quantitative
  6. data with words
    qualitative
  7. the changes that have occurred over many generations to create the world as we know it today
    evolution
  8. Biome: coldest, treeless, permafrost
    tundra
  9. Biome: cold, cone bearing trees called coniferous
    Taiga
  10. Biome: Trees lose leaves in the fall, four seasons
    Temperate Deciduous Forest
  11. Biome: mild, no tress (rain), grasses
    Temperate Grasslands
  12. Biome: Warm, trees
    Savannas
  13. Biome: most productive, evergreens, moist
    Tropical Rainforest
  14. Biome: hot, cold, succulent
    Desert
  15. Biome: bog, marsh, swamp
    Wetlands
  16. ocean zone with sunlight, and photosynthesis
    sunlit zone (photic zone)
  17. ocean zone without sunlight
    aphotic zone
  18. all of the living and nonliving things in an area
    ecosystem
  19. all of the life in an area
    community
  20. group of individuals of the same species
    population
  21. a group of organisms of a single type that are capable of producing fertile offspring in the natural environment
    species
  22. relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not harmed or benefited
    Commensalism
  23. interaction in which both species benefit; both species get something out of the relationship
    Mutualism
  24. a relationship in which one organism is harmed while the other benefits
    Parasitism
  25. close interactions between organisms
    symbiosis
  26. consists of a predator and prey
    predation
  27. how are photosynthesis and respiration related?
    • they have the same formula just flipped:
    • 6CO²+6H²O+energy(sun)--> C6H12O6+6O2 (sugars) or
    • " <-- "
  28. cycle: precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, groundwater
    water cylce
  29. cycle: cellular respiration, photosynthesis, decomposition, carbon dioxide
    carbon cycle
  30. what eat and absorb "waste" materials
    decomposers
  31. growth of a community from scratch
    primary succession
  32. growth of a community from leftovers
    secondary succession
  33. the first species to colonize a new habitat
    pioneer species
  34. the number of individuals a population contains
    population size
  35. how crowded a population is
    population density
  36. the spatial distribution of individuals within the population
    population dispersion
  37. survivorship curve: the likelihood of dying is small until late in life, when mortality
    type 1
  38. survivorship curve: the probability of dying does not change throughout life
    type 2
  39. survivorship curve: many organisms are very likely to die when young, has a good chance of surviving to old age
    type 3
  40. the distribution of individuals among different ages in a population
    age structure
  41. organisms that obtain their energy by taking in, consuming food from an outside source
    consumers/ heterotrophs
  42. organisms that obtain their energy by producing their own food
    producers/ autotrophs
  43. organisms who eat ptoducers
    herbivores
  44. organisms that eat consumers
    carnivores
  45. factors in an ecosystem that are not living
    abiotic factors
  46. factors in an ecosystem that are living
    biotic factors
  47. the physical area in which an organism lives
    habitat
  48. the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency, smaller than a fundamental niche
    realized niche
  49. the full range of conditions that a species
    can tolerate and resources it can use
    fundamental niche
  50. limit growth of a population
    limiting factors
  51. pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
    elements
  52. the simplest particle of an element
    atom
  53. pure substance that is made up of atoms of two or more elements
    compound
  54. a chemical structure composed of one or more atoms
    molecule
  55. periodic table designed and arranged by...
    Demetri Mendeleev
  56. a bond formed by electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions
    ionic bond
  57. a bond that forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
    covalent bonds
  58. a weak chemical bond between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and a negatively charged region of another molecule
    hydrogen bond
  59. which monomers make up carbohydrates
    monosaccharides
  60. which monomers make up lipids
    glycerol and fatty acids
  61. which monomers make proteins
    amino acids
  62. which monomers make up nucleic acids
    nucleotides
  63. scale of bases and acids
    ph scale
  64. sour and corrosive
    acids
  65. bitter and slippery
    bases
  66. a catalyst, usually a protein, in living systems
    enzyme
  67. a chemical that reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction but is not a reactant
    catalyst
  68. the cell theory:
    • all living things are composed of one or more cells
    • the cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things
    • all cells must come from preexisting cells
  69. prokaryotes or eukaryotes: do not have a nucleus
    prokaryotes
  70. cell part: "gate keeper", selectively permeable, made of proteins and lipids
    cell membrane
  71. cell part: controls the cell, contains info, has chromatin/chromosomes
    nucleus
  72. cell part: site of protein synthesis
    ribosomes
  73. cell part: rough, the molecule highway; smooth, site of lipid sunthesis
    endoplasmic reticulum
  74. cell part: processes, packages, and secretes
    golgi apparatus/ golgi bodies
  75. cell part: powerhouse of the cell
    mitochondria
  76. cell part: support for the cell and organelles
    cytoskeleton
  77. cell part: break down and remove foreign material or digest food particles
    lysosomes
  78. cell part: build the spindle for cell division
    centrioles
  79. in diffusion moving down the concentration gradient happens, what is the result?
    equilibrium
  80. process of a cell engulfing large amounts of material
    endocytosis
  81. expelling large amounts of materials
    exocytosis
  82. movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
    diffusion
  83. diffusion of water
    osmosis
  84. when there is a higher concentration inside and lower concentration outside, cell drains
    hypertonic solution
  85. opposite of hypertonic, cell fills and could burst (swells)
    hypotonic solution
  86. water moves evenly and continuous
    isotonic solution
  87. movement of molecules in/out of cell without energy
    passive transport
  88. movement of molecules with the use of energy
    active transport
  89. use carrier proteins
    facilitated diffusion
  90. the conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compound
    photosynthesis
  91. the process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
    cellular respiration
  92. uses thylakoids, known as light reaction
    light - dependent reactions
  93. uses stroma, known as dark reactions
    light-independent reactions
  94. a process in chloroplasts and mitochondria in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
    chemiosmosis
  95. the process by which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid
    lactic acid fermentation
  96. the process by which pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol; the anaerobic action of yeast on sugars
    alcoholic fermentation
  97. respiration with oxygen
    aerobic
  98. respiration without oxygen
    anaerobic
  99. what is the final electron acceptor in respiration?
    oxygen
  100. the production of offspring that does not involve the union of gametes
    asexual reproduction
  101. thew production of offspring from the combination of genetic material from two parent organisms
    sexual reproduction
  102. a chromosome that determines sex
    sex chromosome
  103. a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
    autosome
  104. an asexual cell division of prokaryotes that produces identical offspring
    binary fission
  105. mitosis: chromatin is coiled to form chromosomes, centrosomes appear, spindle is forming, nuclear envelope and nucleus disaapear, longest phase of mitosis
    prophase
  106. mitosis: centrosomes are at poles, spindle formed, spindle fibers are attched to chromosomes, chromosomes lined up equator
    metaphase
  107. mitosis: sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of cell, centrosomes split
    anaphase
  108. mitosis: nuclear envelope and nucleus appear, chromatids uncoil to form chromatin, spindle breaks apart, centrosomes/ centrioles, disappearring, cytokinesis
    telophase
  109. mitosis: final pinching of the cytoplasm to form two cells
    cytokinesis
  110. animal or plant cells: cleavage furrow
    animal cells
  111. animal or plant cell: cell plate
    plant cell
  112. preparation for and lead up to cell division, cell divides
    cell cycle
  113. meiosis: centrosomes appear, spindle forming, chromatin coils to form chromosomes, nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear, synapsis of homologous chromosomes, crossing over may occur
    prophase 1
  114. meiosis: random alignment of tetrads on equator, spindle fiber attaches to chromosomes
    metaphase 1
  115. meiosis: each whole chromosome is pulled to a pole, tetrads split
    anaphase 1
  116. meiosis: nucleus/ nucleolus may or may not appear, whole chromosomes at poles, cytokinesis begins, 2 new haploid cells
    telophase 1
  117. meiosis II: same, but without DNA replication
    interphase II
  118. meiosis II: centrosomes appear, spindle forming, nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear
    prophase II
  119. meiosis II: chromosomes on equator, spindle attaches to chromatids
    matephaseII
  120. meiosis II: chromatids are pulled to the poles
    anaphase II
  121. meiosis II: centrosomes disappear, spindle breaks down, nuclear envelope and nucleolus reappear, cytokinesis II begins
    Telophase II
  122. spermatogenesis occurs in....
    the testes
  123. oogenesis occurs in...
    the ovaries
  124. hereditary information in the form of a large molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid
    DNA
  125. a nucleic acid composed of a single strand and distinguished from DNA by containing ribose and uracil
    RNA
  126. who designed the double helix?
    Watson and Crick
  127. base pairing in DNA
    • C-G
    • A-T
  128. base pairing in RNA
    • A-U
    • C-G
  129. split DNA molecule by breaking H-bonds
    helicase
  130. build new DNA strands by Attaching nucleotides
    DNA polymerase
  131. process of copying the message stored in DNA and RNA
    transcription
  132. building of a protein using info on RNA
    translation
  133. an allele that makes the presence of another
    dominant
  134. an allele that is masked by the presence of another
    recessive
  135. a segment of DNA that codes for the production of a certain protein/trait
    gene
  136. an alternative form of a gene
    allele
  137. both alleles are the same
    homozygous
  138. the alleles of the organism are different
    heterozygous
  139. when any allele of the pair is dominant and the other is recessive
    complete dominace
  140. there is no dominant or recessive allele, when both alleles are together (heterozygous individual) you see an inheritance or blend of traits
    incomplete dominance
  141. when you have 2 different alleles together you see a phenotype that shows both traits at the same time
    codominance
  142. more than two alleles
    multiple allele traits
  143. traits that are controlled by more than one gene
    polygenic trait
  144. traits that are linked to the X or Y (sex) chromosomes
    sex-linked traits
  145. genetic makeup of an organism
    genotype
  146. physical characteristics based on genotype
    phenotype
  147. the field of biology that studies the transmission of traits from parents to offspring
    genetics
  148. the transmission of traits from parents to offspring
    heredity
  149. the six kingdoms
    • archaebacteria
    • eubacteria
    • protista
    • fungi
    • plantae
    • animalia
  150. biological hierarchy
    • kingdom
    • phylum
    • class
    • order
    • family
    • genus
    • species
  151. a system of naming organisms that uses the genus mane and a species identifier
    binomial nomenclature
  152. how are species name written
    the genus first then the species
  153. the science of grouping organisms according to their presumed evolutionary relationships
    taxnomy
  154. transports water and nutrients from the soil up into the plant
    xylon
  155. transports food (glucose) around the plant
    phloem
  156. the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma of a flower of the same species
    pollination
  157. This cavity surrounds the gut, may contain various other organs
    coelomate
  158. without a coelom or body cavity; an animal lacking a body cavity
    acoelomate
  159. Animals that have a body cavity that is in direct contact with the outer muscular layer of the body and does not arise by splitting of the mesoderm
    pseudocoelomates
  160. In animals, refers to organisms with their body parts arranged around a central axis
    radially symmetrical
  161. In animals, refers to those that have a single axis of symmetry
    bilateral symmetry
  162. A hard, jointed, external covering that encloses the muscles and organs of an organism
    exoskeleton
  163. The sessile form of life history in cnidarian
    polyp
  164. The motile bell-shaped form of body plan in cnidarians
    medusa
  165. In chordates, a cellular rod that runs the length of the body and provides dorsal support
    notochord
  166. The segments of the spinal column
    vertebrae
  167. A stiff hair, bristle, or bristlelike process or part on an organism.
    setae
  168. To shed periodically part or all of a coat or an outer covering, such as feathers, cuticle, or skin, which is then replaced by a new growth
    molting
  169. A system of water-filled canals derived from the coelom that connects the tube feet of echinoderms
    water vascular system
  170. in most multicellular organisms, a group of similar cells that carry out a common function
    tissue
  171. several types of body tissues that together perform a function
    organ
  172. a group of organs that interact to perfrom a set of related tasks
    organ system

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