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2013-04-15 17:54:20

Anatomy 2
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  1. The _________, or the ________ tract, is the continuous muscular digestive tube that winds through the body digesting and absorbing food. 
    alimentary canal

  2. The organs of the alimentary canal include:
    • the mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  3. Accessory digestive organs include:
    • teeth
    • tongue
    • gallbladder
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • pancreas
  4. _________ moves food through the alimentary canal and includes both swallowing and peristalsis 
  5. __________ is the passage of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract through the mucosal cells into the blood or lymph
  6. Controls of the digestive activity are both 
    extrinsic and intrinsic (nervous and hormonal)
  7. The ____________ ___________ covers the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs, and the ________ _____________ lines the body wall of the abdominopelvic cavity
    • visceral peritoneum
    • parietal peritoneum
  8. the __________ cavity is located between the visceral and parietal peritoneums and is filled with serous fluid
  9. ___________ is a double layer of peritoneum that extends to the digestive organs from the body wall. It allows blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves to reach the digestive organs and holds the organs in place as well as stores fat
  10. ______________ organs are found posterior to the mesentery, lying against the dorsal abdominal wall
  11. The ___________ circulation serves the digestive system and includes those arteries that branch off the abdominal aorta to serve the digestive organs and the hepatic portal circulation
  12. The _______ is the innermost, moist, epithelial membrane that lines the entire digestive tract. It secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones; absorbs digestive end products into the blood; and protects against infectious disease
  13. ________ is a moderately dense connective tissue layer of the digestive tract that contains blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and nerve fibers. 
  14. _______ ______ typically consists of smooth muscle and is responsible for peristalsis and segmentation
    Muscularis externa
  15. ______, the protective outer layer of the intraperitoneal organs, is the visceral peritoneum
  16. The alimentary canal has its own _____ supply made up of enteric neurons
  17. The mouth is a _________ _______ epithelial mucosa-lined cavity
    stratified squamous
  18. The adult stomach varies from _____ long
    15-25 cm 
  19. The major regions of the stomach include 
    • cardiac region
    • fundus
    • body
    • pyloric region
  20. The lesser and greater ___________ help to tie the stomach to other digestive organs and the body wall
  21. The surface epithelium of the stomach mucosa is a _______ ________ epithelium composed of goblet cells, which produce a protective two-layer coat of alkaline mucus
    simple columnar
  22. Gastric juice may be composed of
    • mucus
    • hydrochloric acid
    • intrinsic factor
    • pepsinogen
    • variety of hormones
  23. Gastric secretion happens in there phases
    • Cephalic phase
    • Gastric phase
    • Intestinal phase
  24. What allows the stomach to accommodate food and maintain internal pressure?
    reflex mediated relaxation
  25. What establishes the stomach's basic electrical rhythm of peristaltic waves?
    interstitial cells of Cajal
  26. The small intestine has what to help with absorption?
    • plicae circulares
    • villi
    • microvilli
  27. The intestinal crypts are also known as 
    the crypts of Lieberkuhn
  28. THe ________ _______ secrete intestinal juice that serves as a carrier fluid for absorbing nutrients from chyme
    intestinal crypts 
  29. liver lobules are made of 
  30. the gallbladder contracts when stimulated by _________. This allows bile to enter the small intestine 
  31. The pancreas is 
  32. Secretion of pancreatic juice is regulated by local hormones and the 
    parasympathetic nervous system
  33. Food takes _______ hours to complete its digestive path through the small intestine 
    3 to 6
  34. _______ is the most common motion of the small intestine 
  35. The large intestine absorbs ____ from indigestible food residues and eliminates them as feces
  36. The large intestine exhibits three unique features
    • teniae coli
    • haustra
    • epiploic
  37. THe large intestine has the following subdivisions
    • cecum
    • appendix
    • colon
    • rectum
    • anal canal
  38. The movements in the large intestine include
    • haustral contractions
    • mass movements 
  39. Chemical digestion in accomplished by enzymes, secreted by ______ and _________ glands of the alimentary canal, used in hydrolysis reaction
    • intrinsic
    • accessory
  40. _________ are simple sugars that are absorbed immediately
    Monosaccarides (glucose, galactose, and fructose)
  41. _______ are composed of two monosaccharides bonded together
    disaccharides (maltose, lactose, and sucrose)
  42. The digestible polysaccharide found in the diet is _____; other polysaccharides, such as _______, are not able to be broken down by humans
    • starch
    • cellulose
  43. ______, secreted by the chief cels, begins the chemical digestion of proteins in the stomach
  44. _____ is produced in infants and breaks down milk proteins 
  45. ________ enzymes, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, further break down proteins in the small intestine 
    Pancreatic enzymes
  46. The brush border enzymes _________, __________, and _________ work on freeing single amino acids in the small intestine
    • carboxypeptidase
    • aminopeptidase
    • dipeptidase 
  47. The small intestine is the sole site for _____ digestion
  48. ______ are secreted by the pancreas and are the enzymes that digest fats after they have been pretreated with bile
  49. __________ are hydrolyzed to their nucleotide monomers by pancreatic nucleases present in pancreatic juice
    nucleic acids
  50. Most absorption is complete before the chyme reaches the 
  51. Monoglycerides and free fatty acids of lipid digestion become associated with bile salts and lecithin to form ______, which are necessary for lipid absorption 
  52. What are transported actively across the epithelium by special transport carriers in the villus epithelium
    • pentose sugars
    • nitrogenos bases
    • phosphate ions
  53. The large intestine absorbs vitamins
    B and K
  54. Calcium and iron are absorbed in the 
  55. _______ is the most abundant substance in chyme and 95 % of it is absorbed in the small intestine by osmosis
  56. ________ of nutrients can result from anything that interferes with the delivery of bile or pancreatic juices, as well as factors that damage the intestinal mucosa