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what are some characteristics of Wisdom Literature?
- - little interest in Yhwh or act of the Salvation (no terms of covenant)
- - little interest in history of Israel
- - focus on life universals (how do we live life, how do we do it well and successful)
- - interest in creation
How is Wisdom connected to Solomon?
- proverbs: says the author is king of Israel
- Qoheleth (ecclesiastes) says the same thing
- Song of Songs are attributed to Solomon
- Wisdom of Solomon is the tittle
- there is pseudonymity so the attention can be in the work
what are the two different parts of the proverbs?
- opening poems (1-9) which are longer in general
- 2 line proverbs which are the rest of the book. unorganized list of sayings. short universal statements.
what are the contrast in the proverbs?
(talk about contradictory statements as well)
- contradictory because it is all in the application
- contrast: fool and wise
- rich and poor (better to be rich, however better to be poor than to be rich with no soul)
- diligent and lazy
what is the set-up of Job
- 1. Job is described as faithful, persevering, gentile.
- 2. scene shifts to Heavenly Court above
- 3. then Satan the Accuser comes out. (not like our regular satan)
- 4. accusation of Job: he is only faithful because God gives him lots of things.
- 5. Accusation of God: He is bribing Job
- 6. 2 trials: take away his stuff/family and take away his health
- 7. curse god and die: curse Him and end your suffering
how do we know that its not our later traditional satan?
- the accuser goes up to God and starts a chat. no security breached.
- this guy is not trying to overthrow the all mighty.
- no outright rebellion, just a huge tattle tale.
what are the themes in Job
- why do bad things happen to good people?
- we are somewhat good people who try to do good things, yet bad things still happen to us.
god does things that we cannot understand. he knows what he is doing
who are the friends of Job? how long do they stay and why?
- idk. some weird names we probably dont have to remember
- they stay for 7 days. mourning him. think he is already dead.
what are the accusations of Job's friends?
where did they get this idea?
are they correct?
- you must have sinned. this is how God works. you sin, he punished. you smitten so you must have sinned.
- from Deuteronomy. these guys are not Israelites but its traditional punishment
- no. Job has not done anything.
what is the point of Ecclesiastes?
i dont know
Job and God. what happens in the end?
- they have a confrontation
- Job challenges God because he hasnt done anything so asks him to respond. yells at him.
- God tells him you cannot judge me, you have no knowledge.
- i uttered what i did not understand. he was wrong in asking for an explanation
so point of story/theme is?
- why do we suffer?
- answer: God knows the answer and sometimes we cant know. it is not always punishment and it is not always a bad thing. we just dont know. its God.
Wisdom of Solomon and Greek Philosophy?
what is put together?
- merger of Greek philosophy and Hebrew thought.
- merge to provide them a way to look at own tradition. not rejecting OT. merging of the two.
wisdom of Solomon and resurrection?
- i think this relates to the immortality of the Soul:
- there is a reward in heaven in the afterlife.
- there is good things for those who behave.
- justice after death
what are the two poles of the NT?
- 1. gospels: acts of apostles is connected, life and meaning of Jesus (historical view of his life), there is a consistency
- 2. Pauline Epistles: catholic epistles and revelations connected because all letters and teach the same character. largest body of teaching
what are geographical characteristics of Judea
- center of power
- ruled by Jewish kings (who just happens to be a Roman puppet)
- has Jerusalem and the Temple
- is pretty urban
what are geographical characteristics of Galilee?
- rural: in regards to Jewish population (gentiles are in large cities)
- they have own accent- redneck type that follow Judaism
what are the 4 philosophies or groups in regards to Judaism?
- more wealthy part of the population (small in #)
- most influence within Jerusalem (control of high priesthood)
- OK with Roman rule
- only accepted Torah (most sola scriptura. no believe in ressurection)
- majority of the populace (average individual trained by these)
- most conflicts are with this group (cuz of size)
- Focus on the Law (build fences around law, have scribes, oral torah)
- Tolerate Roman Rule
- Only group to survive the Roman conquest of Judea
- name comes from 'Zeal' for God
- essentially revolutionaries against Rome
- Violence to bring about the Kingdom
- not well organized
- some disciples were Zealots (judas speculative)
- small group (in villages within the community, share meals and housing)
- sectarian (turned inward, thought everyone else was gonna go to hell, westboro baptist church)
- responsible for the dead see scrolls
messianic expectations: political vs. priestly
- political: house of david, defeat of the romans, restore Israel to independence under God
- most people try to put Jesus in this category
priestly: restoration of true worship, covenant with Phineas, not very widespread
THE EARLY CHURCH: WITNESS OF ACTS
THE EARLY CHURCH
Tell me an overview of Acts
- author- Luke (evangelist, doctor)
- Genre- gospel of the holy spirit. work gets done through the holy spirit not Jesus
- then outline of the book
what is the basic outline of Acts
- receive the power of the holy spirit.
- from Rome you can get anywhere
- two parts:
- 1. works of the 12 (ch 1-12)
- 2. works of Paul- paul is present beforehand but his actions towards world are dealt with here
Replacement of Judas
Who could replace him? Who did?
- Judas killed himself and need replacement.
- need 12 because of the 12 tribes. reconstructing Israel as a church
- Between Joseph and Matthias
- Need to have qualifications: with jesus from beginning
- Matthias chosen to replace him
- Chosen by lot, means that it not chosen at random but rather God moving chance
what is the significance of the Pentecost in Jewish eyes?
- its a Jewish feat
- 50 days after Passover
- Pilgrimage festival- which explains why so many people and languages in Jerusalem
- commemoration of the Law!!
significance of pentecost in christian eyes?
the spirit descends?
what happens at the Pentecost?
- spirit descends in fire and wind (wind/spirit)
- speaking in tongues- gibberish/ speak a language you dont need to know.
- holy spirit returns language to us and unites us in the church
peter's speech after Pentecost?
- not drunk, outpouring of the spirit. rather, promise of the spirit. what the author foretold
- peter mentions Jesus, and then death. signs and miracles that he was from God. God raised him from the dead
- then gives action to people: repent and be baptized. receive holy spirit
why was the PDR a scandal?
- jesus is the messiah but he is dead, so a failure
- people think public ministry a failure. but it is not
- people think cursed because crucifixion but no.
- important to witness crucifixion
what is the role of the Apostles?
- leaders of the early community
- witnesses to the resurrection
- in charge of sacraments (baptism, confirmation, breaking of bread)
- miraculous deeds through actions of Christ
- persecuted when they preached of Jesus
life in community.
what was it like?
why this practice?
why did it fall away?
- community not seen as a political mvmt but religious
- this practice because lots of poor people and it is what Jesus and the 12 were doing before
- it fell away because it gets to big, people getting lost in the shuffle, not enough time praying
who is ananias and sapphira
- dead people who the Spirit struck down.
- killed because they lied to the Holy Spirit.
what was the prayer life like in the early church?
- daily prayer in the Temple (no offer sacrificed, just say prayer, still consider themselves Jewish)
- breaking of bread in homes
what were the language barriers for the prayer life?
- Greek and Aramaic
- Greeks are Jewish because they live outside boundaries of Judea
PAUL AND HIS MISSION
PAUL AND HIS MISSION
why is Paul important?
- because we are all important
- dynamo for conversions- does lots of them
- early theologian: presentation of the Gospel, focus on the meaning of Jesus
what was Paul's life before the conversion?
- Jew from Tarsus: jew and roman citizen
- trained as a Rabbi
- persecutor of the Church: he is on his way to Damascus to arrest Christians when we meet him
why did God pick Paul if he was arresting and persecuting Christians?
- character and intelligence: smart, charismatic
- repentance: ex of what it should be. repent with God
Paul's conversion: notice the language
- it says why are you persecuting me, instead of my people
- believers are connected to Christ.
Paul's conversion- how many days of blindness? Why? what happens at end?
- three days of blindness where he does not eat.
- symbolism of his death.
- then he is baptized.
Paul's conversion: who is Ananias?
- the guy who baptizes him and helps him. gives him initial instructions on how to pray.
- at first An. fears Paul and is reluctant to go
Paul's conversion: what do the other;s think? when does he preach?
- others are still wary, no instant communication so people dont know about his conversion
- begins preaching immediately
was there a name change?
- two cultures, two different names
- Saul- jewish culture, and Paul- gentiles
- not a traditional name change, but a reflection of who he is
details of Paul's mission to Gentiles and Jews. who first?
- Paul's first job is to the Jews and Israel because they are God's chosen people. he is rejected in this area
- turns to gentiles. universality of faith
- wasnt there when jesus was there.
- solution is to say he was called and sent by the Risen Jesus
- he is an apostle to the Gentiles (outside of Israel)
details of his speech in athens
- alter to unknown god
- - because just in case. (remember they fear God)
- - Paul uses it as a standing point saying: i know who this unknown God is. he is all of heaven...
- quoting pagans because it gives them a common knowledge
- - then jumps into PDR
knows resurrection will be mocked, but still says the truth. it has an effect. others want to hear more
what are the context of Paul's preaching in general?
- the gospel
- - not public ministry/4 gospels but rather PDR.
meaning of Jesus: behavior for us, church organization and overall theology
Why is Paul being persecuted?
- - he is opposed by:
- -- Jews: Paul eats with gentiles and follows new Torah
- -- Gentiles: he is attacking how Gentiles live, and philosophical issues
why and how does Paul ends in Rome?
- he arrested and makes an appeal to Rome.
- makes the appeal to get to Rome because its what he has been trying to do since he started
- then he dies.
THE GENTILE QUESTIONS
The Gentile Question
who is the first gentile?
why is he god fearing?
- Cornelius: first one to ever enter
- - a centurion roman officer
- - believe in Yhwh (not necesarily scared of him), accepts him as the God of heaven and earth yet does not follow all proscriptions of the law
- - lose his job if he does follow all rules (such as sabbath)
- gives alms and prays
what is Cornelius' vision?
- to send for peter.
- his prayers were accepted as worship
what is Peter's vision?
- setup: he is jaffa on the roof and is hungry.
- goes to show that god works with who prophets are. if he wasn't hungry vision would have different thing but same meaning
- vision: kill and eat animals.
- he protest: not eat anything unclean
- god responds: shut up, what i made clean cannot be rendered unclean.
what is the meaning of peter's vision?
- kosher laws? brings into question these laws
- gentiles are worthy of his time
- - unlawful to enter Gentiles households because they are dirty. but god said clean, so clean
what happens at Cornelius' household?
- peter says god shows no partiality, and gives christian message.
- holy spirit fell on the family. now we cant refuse baptism because of HS.
- - received it backwards: holy spirit before water.
why does peter have to justify his actions at cornelious...
- baptized a gentile while he is not circumcised. very important.
- baptized gentiles as gentiles with no link to law.
- his defense is he had no other choice
what is the controversy of galatians?
- they are believing an "another gospel"
- this gospel has contents saying a warped version of word.
- circumcision required for salvation
- if circumcised, then follow the law
what are Paul's arguments?
- he gives his personal history
- he followed the law scrupulously but wasnt better than anyone else. his salvation came from Jesus, not by his actions.
- therefore, the Law cannot save in itself.
- Galatians are in error
- Law and Sin: galatians dont realize all the rules (600) that exist. no leeway, law meant to train Israel and lead its way to Christ
- freedom from law does not = no morality
- natural law grounded in love
what is the controversy at antioch?
- some teachers come from Jerusalem with same circumcision argument as galatians. they come with approval and blessings of apostles
- Paul also claims blessing and telling a different teaching
- dismay within community. confusion
- appeal to Jerusalem because its mother church. councils
why is there a council of Jerusalem
- to figure out whole circumcision gentiles/ christians/ law issues.
- to ask if christians have to be Jews
what are the arguments of the council?
- I DONT KNOW. didnt listen
- peter's testimony: apostle to the gentiles, given holy spirit
- paul's testimony of conversion
- james assents
what was the final decision of the council?
- LISTEN TO RECORDING. go back on this
- side with peter, paul, and Barnabas
- do not require all the laws.
- three things are forbiden: idols, illicit marriages, blood in meat
what does the council's decision imply?
- no obstacles for the gentiles and more are saved.
- more and more division tween church and synagogue
who were the evangelist?
- matthew: wrote first, tax collectors
- mark: companion of peter
- Luke: physician, companion of Paul
- John: wrote last, was the beloved
what are the origins of the gospels?
life and teachings of Jesus: events of his life, what he taught, reactions by crowds and disciples, eyewitnesses
- got stronger after he died.
- ministers of the new word did the preaching
- people questioned the validity and accurateness of it because it was story from story of an eyewitness
what kind of editing was done to the Gospels?
- others came after to add material:
- multiple endings of mark, women caught in adultery, 2nd ending of John, material faithful to the message
Mt/ Mk/ and Lk are called Synoptics. what is this?
- syn: together
- optics: to look at
- therefore synoptic means to look at together
- move the paragraphs around a little and compare stories
what did you notice in the readings?
- almost similar words. very exact.
- same words in Greek.
- inspiration by the holy spirit
- wrote together...or
what is markan priority?
- argument that mark writes first because:
- it is the shortest- missing material is not something to be omitted
- almost all of his stuff is found in Matthew or Luke
- internal indications of date before 70 (this yr cuz temple destroyed on this date)
two source theory?
- a synoptic relationship theory
- (refer to picture)
- mark writes first
- matthew and Luke did not use one another so had source of Q
- Q: quella (source), material in which mt and lk have in common
- both sources are available in a written form, but put in the gospels in different ways
- a synoptic relationship theory
- (refer to picture)
- like had both mark and mt in front of him.
- mark is the source.
- luke went back and checked out the story
who was the audience for matthew?
- clearly Jewish Christians
- many OT references, including obscure ones,
- jesus as the new moses (many parallels)
- 5 parts to the gospel: 2 is Pentecost
- kingdom of heave: no want to say God
Mark and luke audience?
- gentile christians
- fewer OT references
- explanation for aramaic/ hebrew terms and customs
- mark- community in persecution
- luke- emphasis on the poor
- community is small and diverse
- jewish, gentiles, and samaritans
- turned inward
NT CHRISTOLOGY: A view of Jesus
A view of Jesus
what is the point of chasterton?
- he argues that the rational picture is absurd
- rational picture is misunderstood picture because it doesnt match reason
what were jesus' idiosncrasies?
- his burst of anger: cursing of fig tree, get behind me satan
- lack of record of his childhood
- no infancy gospes
- lack of literary polish to the Gospels: they include infancy and other stuff but leave much out
what do we know about Jesus?
- he was human: born, grew up, died
- his infancy narratives: matthew and luke only.
- christmans story: merger of the story
what are some agreements in the infancy narratives?
- miraculous birth
- virginal conception
- born in bethlehem: connection to David and link to 14 generations
jesus' childhood: why hidden life?
what is the extent of his knowledge?
- hidden life because it seems ordinary.
- he listened to his parents and grew up learning things
- limitations of human nature, he is all knowing but not all knowing on earth. he does know more than a regular human being
- he knows only what he needs to know
explain theories behind those pesky "brothers and sisters"
- true siblings: children of mary and joseph. protestant go with this because of literal translation
- half siblings: children of Joseph only and he is a widow, children of first marriage
- cousins: close relatives
- for catholics we believe NOT true siblings cuz Mary stayed virgin
explain story of the cure of the paralytic
- guy comes through roof and says help. sins are forgiven: ahhh. walk.
- subtle claim of divinity
- when he says "your sins are forgiven people freak out. only god can forgive sins because everything affects him and he can forgive all
- he then says okay fine and makes the guy walk
what are our options in the paralytic story?
- he is who he says he is
- he is lying
- he is crazy
- only believe one
in paralytic story, which is easier to say: forgive sins or walk?
- sins are forgiven cuz no proof
- says walk and gives proof
- physical healing translate into spiritual being
what are His teachings on divorce?
- what god has united, you should not separate
- whoever divorces his wife, except unchastity, and marries another commits adultery
- consistent teachings in mt, mk, lk, and repeated in Paul
- exception clause: is debate on translation and audience cuz only found in matthew
- unlawful- forbidden marriage, before marriage happens (laviticus)
- unchastity: cheating on wife
- IN THE END: it prohibits against remarriage
TITTLES GIVEN TO JESUS (this is actually a question, list them all)
- Son of God
- Son of Man
- I am
- joshua, but pronounced yeshua (cool name): either helps or salves depending on form
- christ: not a name but a title, we see it in public ministry
- anointed one: given to kings, prophets, priests
- look to him as royalty
- jesus tries to correct them except on palm sunday because he knows what is coming. even rides a donkey which adds to the symbolism
Son of God?
- we think trinity but FALSE.
- at the time seen as king, kings are called son of God. not divine, just special relationship.
- kind of like a Sir (lord henry...or something. a title of respect...lord voldemort)
Son of Man?
- most popular self identification.
- means human being, for example in narnia is son of adam/eve
- connected to messiah and future authority
- used by jesus in trial sense
- in johns gospel it always relates to the crucifixion
- this happens when he is walking on water.
- I am he responds: ego eimi
- self revelation of God
- also says in the arrest scene .
- before abraham was i am: bold statement
conclusion of all these names?
- followers of Jesus thought it was divine
- didnt know it at time, until after resurrection