Lymphatic system part 2

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Lymphatic system part 2
2013-04-15 17:20:35
Lymphatic system part

Lymphatic system part 2
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  1. first line of defence: epidermis
    many layers provides a formidable physical barrier to the entrance of microbes.  In addition  periodic shedding of the epidural cells helps remove microbes at the skin surface
  2. first line of defence: mucous membranes
    the epithelial layer of these which line body cavities, secretes fluids called mucous that lubricates and moistens the cavity surface. Mucous traps many microbes and foreign substances
  3. First line of defence: hairs
    the mucous membrane of the nose have these which trap and filter microbes, dust and pollutants from inhaled air
  4. First line of Defence: cilia
    the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract contains these.  The waving action of these propels inhaled dust and microbes that have become trapped in mucous toward the throat
  5. first line of defence: lacrimal apparatus
    of the eyes manufactures and drains away tears in response to irritants
  6. first line of defence: lysozyme
    contained in tears is an enzyme capable of breaking down the cell walls of certain bacteria.  It is also present in saliva, perspiration, nasal secretions and tissue fluids
  7. First line of defence: saliva
    washes microbes from the surface of the teeth and from the mucous membrane of the mouth, much as the tears wash the eyes.
  8. First line of defence: flow of urine
    cleansing of the urethra, retards microbial colonization of the urinary system
  9. First line of defence: sebum
    sebaceous oil glands of the skin secrete this, that forms a protective film over the surface of the skin.  The unsaturated fatty acids inhibit the growth of certain pathogenic bacteria and fungi
  10. First line of defence: perspiration
    helps flush microbes from the surface of the skin
  11. First line of defence: gastric juice
    produced by glands of the stomach, is a mixture of hydrochloric acid, enzymes and mucous.  The strong acidity destroys many bacteria and most bacterial toxins
  12. Antimicrobial substances: interferons
    second line of defence. These proteins produced by infected lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts. Once released by virus infected cells these diffuse to uninfected neighbouring cells where they induce synthesis of antiviral proteins that interfere with viral replication
  13. Antimicrobial substances: complement system
    a second line of defence. a group of normally inactive proteins in blood plasma and on plasma membranes makes up this system.  When activated these proteins enhance certain immune reactions.  It causes cytolysis (bursting) of microbes, promotes phagocytosis and contributes to inflammation
  14. Antimicrobial substances: natural killer cells
    5-10% of lymphocytes in the blood are these.  they lack the membrane molecules that identify B and T cells, but they have the ability to kill a wide variety of infected body cells and certain tumour cells.  They attack any body cells that display abnormal or unusual plasma membrane proteins
  15. Antimicrobial substances: perforin
    the binding of Natural killer cells to a target cell causes the release of granules containing toxic substances.  Some granules contain this protein.  It inserts into the plasma membrane of the target cell and creates channels in the membrane as a result extracellular fluid flows into the target cell and the cell bursts
  16. Antimicrobial substances: phagocytes
    specialized cells that ingest microbes or other particles such as cellular debris
  17. Neutrophils and macrophages
    types of phagocytes. when an infection occur these travel to the infected area.
  18. chemotaxis
    a chemically stimulated movement of phagocytes to a site of damage
  19. adherence
    attachment of the phagocyte to the microbe or foreign material
  20. ingestion
    the plasma membrane of the phagocyte extends projections that engulf the microbe
  21. digestion
    the phagosome enters the cytoplasm and merges with lysosomes to form a single larger structure
  22. killing
    the chemical onslaught provided by lysozyme, digestive enzymes, and oxidants within a phagolysosome quickly kills many types of microbes