Lymphatic system part 3
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is a nonspecific, defensive response of the body to tissue damage. Conditions that may produce this are pathogens, abrasions, chemical irritations, distortions or disturbances of cells and extreme temperatures
characteristics of inflammation
heat pain redness and swelling
vasodilation and increased blood vessel premeability
two immediate changes that occur in blood vessels in a region of tissue injury
in response to injury various cells release this. it causes vasodilation and increased permeability
these polypeptides, induce vasodilation and increase permeability and serve as chemotactic agents for phagocytes
these lipids are released by damaged cells and intensify the effects of histamine and kinins. They may also stimulate the migration of phagocytes through capillary walls
cause increased permeability, they also function in adherence of phagocytes to pathogens and as chemotactic agents that attract phagocytes
different components of this system stimulate histamine release, attract neutrophils by chemotaxis and promote phagocytosis.
emigration of phagocytes
as large amounts of blood start to accumulate, neutrophils begin to stick to the inner surface of the blood vessels then the neutrophils begin to squeeze through the walls of the blood vessel to reach the damaged area. This process depends on chemotaxis
an increase of white blood cells in the blood
a pocket of dead phagocytes and damaged tissue cells
an abnormally high body temperature that occurs because the hypothalamic thermostat is reset. It commonly occurs during infection and inflammation.
substances that are recognized as foreign and provoke immune responses.
Before T-cells leave the thymus or B cells leave the red bone marrow they develop this, the ability to carry out adaptive immune responses
proteins on the outsides of b and t cells that are capable of recognizing specific antigens
cytotoxic T-cells directly attack invadine antigens. Always involves cells attacking cells
B cells transform into plasma cells, which synthesize and secrete specific proteins called antibodies. A given antibody can bind to and inactivate a specific antigen. works mainly against extracellular pathogens
a characteristic of an antigen. It is the ability to provoke an immune response by stimulating the production of specific antibodies, the proliferation of specific T-cells or both
a characteristic of antigens. Is the ability of the antigen to react specifically with the antibodies or cells it provokes
substances with both immunogenicity and reactivity are considered these
typically just certain small parts of a large antigen molecule act as triggers for immune responses
a smaller substance that has reactivity but lacks immunogenicity. It can stimulate an immune response only if it is attached to a larger carrier molecule
Major histocompatability complex antigens
located in the plasma membrane of cells are "self-antigens." These transmembrane glycoproteins are unique to you. They are the reason that tissue can be rejected when transplanted. Their normal function is to help T-cells recognize that an antigen is foreign, not self
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