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2013-04-15 19:26:11

Anatomy 2
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  1. _______ nutrients are those that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained in the diet
  2. There are six categories of nutrients:
    • carbs
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  3. Except for lactose and small amounts of glycogen found in meats, all the _______ we ingest are derived from plants
  4. ______ is the carbohydrate molecule ultimately used by the body as fuel to make ATP
  5. The current recommendation of carbohydrates daily is 
    125-175 grams
  6. proteins in eggs, milk, and meats are considered to be _______ proteins that meet all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth 
  7. The body is in __________ ______ when the amount of nitrogen ingested in proteins is equal to the amount lost in urine and feces
    nitrogen balance 
  8. ______________ hormones accelerate protein synthesis and growth
  9. ________ is the general term for all reactions in which larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
  10. _______ refers to all processes that break down complex structures to simpler ones
  11. In _____________ reactions one substance is oxidized and loses energy by losing electrons, while another substance is reduced and gains energy and electrons that are transferred from the oxidized substance
  12. _____________ phosphorylation occurs when high-energy phosphate groups are transferred directly from phosphorylated substrates to ADP
  13. ________ phosphorylation is carried out by electron transport, which occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria and couples the movement of substances across membranes to chemical reactions
  14. ________ is a series of ten steps where clucose is converted into two pyretic acid molecules in the cytosol of cells
  15. __________ _______ occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria where the pyretic acid is passed through a series of reactions that generate reduced electron carrier molecules, NADH 1 H1 and FADH2
    krebs cycle
  16. Electron transport chain passes electrons through a series of oxidative phosphorylation reactions that generate ____ ATP molecules
  17. _________ is the formation of glycogen, the animal storage form of glucose, that occurs when excess glucose is ingested
  18. ____________ is the breakdown of glycogen into individual glucose molecules that occurs when the blood sugar levels drop
  19. ____________ is the process of forming new glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules that occurs in the liver using glycerol and amino acids
  20. Most body cells easily convert glycerol to __________ phosphate, a glycolysis intermediate that enters the krebs cycle
  21. _____ _______ is the first phase of fatty acid metabolism where fatty acid chains are split into two carbon acetic acid fragments and coenzymes are reduced
    beta oxidation
  22. _____________ is the reformation of triglycerides from unused glycerol and fatty acid chains for store in the body 
  23. ________ is the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids to be used by the body for fuel
  24. ________ __________ occurs whenever proteins have reached the end of their life span and must be broken down to replace the "aged" proteins
    Protein metabolism
  25. ________ is the process of transferring an amine group to alpha-ketoglutaric acid to make glutamic acid
  26. ________ ________ occurs in the liver and removes the amine group of glutamic acid as ammonia and regenerates alpha-ketoglutaric acid
    oxidative deamination
  27. ____ _____ _______ is used to produce molecules that can be oxidized in the Krebs cycle or converted to glucose from keto acids produced through transamination
    keto acid modification
  28. The body exists in a ________ _________-_______ state, where substances are continually being broken down and rebuilt
    dynamic catabolic-anabolic
  29. __________ _____ is the time during and shortly after eating when nutrients are moving into the blood from the GI tract
    Absorptive state
  30. Absorbed __________ are delivered directly to the liver where they are converted into glucose and either used by the cells of the body, stored as glycogen, or converted into fats to be stored
  31. _________ are either used for anabolic purposes or stored in adipose tissue
  32. ______ _____ are delivered to the liver, which dominates some and uses others to make plasma proteins, but most remain in the blood to be distributed to body cells
    Amino acids
  33. ______ directs all events of the absorptive state
  34. _________ ____ is the period when the GI tract is empty and energy resources are supplied by the body reserves 
    Postabsorptive state
  35. Sources of blood glucose include glycogen in the 
    • liver
    • skeletal muscle cells
    • adipose tissues
    • cellular proteins 
  36. __________ ________ is the increased use of noncarbohydrate fuel molecules for energy to save glucose during times of fasting
    glucose sparing
  37. the sympathetic nervous system and several hormones interact to control the 
    postabsorptive state
  38. The hepatocytes carry out over ____ metabolic functions 
  39. ABout _____ of cholesterol is made in the liver and other body cells, and is lost from the body in bile salts in feces
  40. ____________ fatty acids stimulate liver synthesis of cholesterol and inhibit its excretion from the body
  41. _________ fatty acids enhance excretion of cholesterol from the body
  42. ________ fatty acids cause a greater increase in LDL levels and a greater reduction in HDL levels than saturated fatty acids
  43. Smoking, coffee drinking, and stress ______ LDL levels; regular aerobic exercise appears to  ______ LDL levels and ______ HDl levels 
    • increase
    • reduce
    • increase
  44. _______ ______ is the energy liberated during food oxidation
    energy intake
  45. _____ ______ includes energy lost as heat, energy used to do work, and energy that is stored as fat or glycogen
    energy output
  46. The body's rate of energy output is called the _______ _____, which is the total heat produced by all the chemical reaction and mechanical work of the body
    metabolic rate
  47. The ______ ______ _____ reflects the energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities 
    Basal metabolic rate
  48. the _______ _________ ______ is the rate of kilocalorie consumption needed to fuel all ongoing activities both involuntary and voluntary
    total metabolic rate
  49. ______ is the loss of heat in the form of infrared waves 
  50. _______ is the transfer of heat from a warmer object to a cooler one when the two are in direct contact with each other
  51. _______ occurs when the warm air surrounding the body expands and rises and is replaced by cooler air molecules