Test 4 - A&P

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blondie94
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Test 4 - A&P
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2013-05-06 17:57:20
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Groleau IVCC Unit
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Urinary and Reproductive System
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  1. Urine is formed by three processes, what are they?
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorption
    • Secretion
  2. This process of urine formation involves movement of substances from the glomerules into Bowman's Capsule
    Filtration
  3. This process of urine formation involves movement of substances from renal tubules back into the blood.
    Reabsorption
  4. Where does reabsorption mostly occur?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  5. This process of urine formation involves movement of substance from blood back into the renal tubules.
    Secretion
  6. When secretion takes place, the reminants will end up in the final urine product. True or False?
    True
  7. What is the main organ of the urinary system?
    Kidney
  8. What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
    Nephron
  9. Review movement of blood through the kidney and products of the kidney
  10. How many nephrons per kidney?
    More than 1 million
  11. How many major cortexes in each kidney?
    2-3
  12. how many minor cortex in each kidney?
    8-14
  13. Fx of Renin
    Regulate blood pressure
  14. Fx of Erythropoetin
    Stimulates the production of red blood cells
  15. Fx of Vitamin D
    Assists in proper absorption of calcium
  16. Name 5 functions of the kidney
    • Remove metabolic waste material from the blood
    • Produce urine
    • Secrete erythropoetin
    • Activate vitamin D
    • Secrete renin
  17. Network of Cappilaries surrounded by Bowman's Capsule
    glomerulus
  18. Condition in which urine is voided involuntarily
    Incontinence
  19. Urine is produced but not voided
    Urinary Retention
  20. Inflammation of urinary bladder
    Cystitis
  21. Substance that causes increased production of urine
    Diuretic
  22. Inflammation of the kidney
    Nephritis
  23. Presence of glucose in the urine
    Glucosuria
  24. Aritificial filtering of the blood
    Dialysis
  25. How does dialysis filter the blood artificially?
    Use of semi permeable membrane
  26. Painful urination
    Dysuria
  27. Production of excessive amounts of urine
    Polyuria
  28. Absence of urine formation
    Anuria
  29. A  ______ _______ _______ is associated with all parts of the kidney.
    Rich cappillary network
  30. Fluid initially formed by filtration
    Filtrate
  31. Where does filtrate pass thru?
    Renal tubules
  32. General term for the tubules of the nephron
    Renal Tubules
  33. These venules run across tops of the renal pyramids and seperates the cortex from the medulla
    Arcuate arteries and veins
  34. Found in the cortex creating a meshwork
    Peritubular capillaries
  35. Found in the medulla, longer in length than peritubular capillaries and have a verticle appearnce
    Vaso rectus
  36. This specific nephron extends into the cortex and sometimes only slightly into the medulla
    Cortical Nephron
  37. This specific nephron extends deeply into the renal medulla
    Juxtamedullary medulla
  38. This pressure is exerted by blood pressure within the glomerulus
    Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
  39. This pressure is exerted by solute levels of the Bowman's Capsule. Opposes filtration.
    Glomerular Plasma Osmotic Pressure
  40. These two pressures within the Renal Corpuscle opposes filtration.
    • Glomerular Plasma Osmotic Prssure
    • Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
  41. This pressure is exerted in the filtrate of the Bowman's Capsule
    Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
  42. What type of nephron is necessary for a hypertonic urine sample?
    Juxtamedullary
  43. What percent of nephrons are the juxtamedullary?
    20%
  44. What percent of nephrons are the Cortical Nephrons?
    80%
  45. As a general rule of thumb, when does filtration occur?
    When filtration pressure is positive.
  46. The higher the level of filtration pressure, the higher the ______ _______.
    Filtration Rate
  47. What are the "non filterable" components of blood?
    Large proteins such as hormones, enzymes, and antibodies, and formed elements of the blood.
  48. Name 2 waste products found in the filtrate?
    Urea and Creatinine
  49. What type of substances can be found in the filtrate?
    Water, Glucose, Amino Acids, Waste Prodicts, and various ions.
  50. What ions can be found in the filtrate
    Sodium, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium
  51. What causes filtration?
    Filtration Pressure
  52. Identify the formula that calculates filtration pressure.
    Filtration Pressure=GHP - (GPOP + CHP)
  53. Identify three reasons why filtration pressure can vary.
    • Change in diameters in the arterioles
    • Change in the GPOP
    • Change in the CHP
  54. Where does the Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure occur?
    Bowman's Capsule
  55. In regards to the diameter of the arterioles, how do they react when filtration is being increased?
    • Afferent arterioles increase in diameter
    • Efferent arterioles decrease in diameter
  56. How many liters of filtrate is produced by BOTH kidneys in a 24 hour period?
    180 L
  57. Outer layer of the Kidney
    Renal Cortex
  58. Inner layer of the Kidney
    Renal Medulla
  59. Conical masses of tissue seen within the renal medulla
    Renal Pyramids
  60. The tips of the renal pyramid
    Renal papillae
  61. Extensions of the renal cortex into the renal medulla
    Renal Collumns
  62. Measure of a solute concentration
    Tonicity
  63. Equal solute and solvent concentration when in regards to tonicity
    Isotonic
  64. Grater solute concentration when in regards to tonicity
    Hypertonic
  65. Greater solvent concentration when in regards to tonicity.
    Hypotonic
  66. Another kind of reabsorption is associated with the loops of henle of the juxamedullary nephron, what is this unique process called?
    Counter-Current Mechanism
  67. In a Counter-Current Mechanism, why can't water follow sodium out of the membrane of the ascending loop of henle?
    The membrane is too thick
  68. What does the tonicity start out as in tthe juxamedullary nephron when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active?
    Isotonic
  69. What does the tonicity change to as filtrate passes through the descending loop of henle when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active? What happens?
    Hypertonic, water moves out of the descending loop via osmosis.
  70. In a juxtamedullary nephron, a hypertonic filtrate moves through the descending loop of henle when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active. What tonicity does it achieve when it enters the ascending loop of henle? What happens?
    Hypotonic, Chloride and Sodium ions move out via active transport.
  71. In a juxtamedullary nephron, when a Counter-Current Mechanism is active, what happens to the fluid's tonicity when it reaches the distal convoluted tubules? What happens here?
    The filtrate becomes hypertonic and water moves out of the tubules via osmosis
  72. What is the function of the couter-current mechanism in a juxtamedullary nephron?
    Keep the medullary interstitial fluid hypertonic in order to produce a hypertonic urine.
  73. During the Counter-Current Mechanism in a juxtamedullary nephron, what happens in the collecting duct?
    Water moves out of the collecting duct by means of osmosis producing a hypertonic urine.
  74. A capillary network within the kidney.
    Glomerulus
  75. Each glomerulus is surrounded by what?
    Bowman's capsule.
  76. The glomerulus together with its Bowman's capsule is reffered to as what?
    Renal Corpuscle
  77. What makes up the two layers of Bowman's capsule?
    Simple Squamous Epithelial Cells
  78. True or False. The cappillaries of the glomeruli are much more permeable than the cappillaries of other parts of the body.
    True
  79. Why are the cappillaries of the glomeruli more permeable than other parts of the body?
    Contain fenestrae
  80. What are the numerous tiny openings in the glomerular cappillary walls?
    fenestrae
  81. Formed by the combination of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells?
    Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
  82. The distal convoluted tubule of the nephron comes into contact with the afferent arteriole. Where this contact occurs, the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule are narrowed and packed together. What do these cells make up?
    Macula Densa
  83. The large smooth muscle cells of the  afferent arteriole that comes into contact with the macula densa.
    Juxtaglomerular Cells
  84. What do the Juxtaglomerular cells secrete?
    Renin
  85. The expansion of the ureter as it opens into the kidney.
    Renal Pelvis
  86. Connects kidney to the urinary bladder.
    Ureter
  87. Leads from theurinary bladder through the external genitalia.
    Urethra
  88. Identify the three parts of a male urethra.
    • Prostatic urethra
    • Membranous urethra
    • Penile urethra
  89. Name a powerful vasoconstrictor.
    Angiotensin II
  90. how does Angiotensin II increase filtration rate?
    It causes the smooth muscle cells of the efferent arterole to constrict. In turn, less blood leaves the glomerulus and the glomerular hydrostatic pressure increases. This increases filtration rate.
  91. Assuming a decreased filtration rate, what happens to the amount of chloride ions reaching the distal convoluted tubule?
    Decreased.
  92. In regards to regulating the filtration rate, what causes an increase flow of blood into the glomerulus?
    Macula Densa signalling the smooth muscles of the afferent arteriole to relax.
  93. In regards to regulating the filtration rate, The increase flow of blood into the glomerus from the relaxation of the afferent arteriole muscles causes what?
    Increased GHP and increase filtration rate.
  94. In regards to regulating the filtration rate, what stimulates the juxtaglomerular cells to secrete renin?
    The macula densa.
  95. In regards to regulating the filtration rate, when renin is released, what rxns occur?
    Renin causes Angiotensinogen to turn into Angiotensin I, then Angiotensin I is coverted to Angiotensin II
  96. What two hormones effect systemic blood pressure?
    Renin and Aldosterone
  97. Where is aldosterone released from?
    Adrenal Gland
  98. What does aldosterone do?
    Increases the reabsorption of sodium into the peritubular capillaries and causes additional secretion of potassium into the renal tubules
  99. Assuming an initial codition of low BP and low sodium in the blood, how does Renin increase the systemic blood pressure?
    • 1. Juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin
    • 2. Angiotensinogen --> Angiotensin I --> Angiotensin II
    • 3. Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone relaese
    • 4. Increased NA blood levels by aldosterone, Increased water blood volume, Increase Blood Volume, Increase BP
  100. Approximately what percent of all reabsorption occurs in the PCT?
    66%
  101. Microscopic inspection of the PCT revals the epithelial cells have numerous _______ projecting from their surfaces. This gives the PCT a "brush border".
    Microvilli
  102. In general what substances are reabsorbed in the kidney?
    Water, glucose, Sodium ions, Chloride ions, amino acids, albumin
  103. What type of process is involved when sodium is reabsorbed in the kidney?
    Active Transport
  104. What type of process is involved when negative ions is reabsorbed in the kidney?
    passive transport
  105. What type of process is involved when water is reabsorbed in the kidney?
    Osmosis
  106. What type of process is involved when Glucose is reabsorbed in the kidney?
    Active transport
  107. What type of process is involved when Amino Acid is reabsorbed in the kidney?
    Active Transport
  108. What type of process is involved when albumin is reabsorbed in the kidney?
    Pinocytosis
  109. Diagram Reabsorption
  110. What does hydrogen cause when secreted?
    Urine to be acidic
  111. Name five substances secreted in urine formation?
    • Hydrogen ions
    • Potassium ions
    • Ammonia ions
    • Histamine
    • Penicillin
  112. Name 2 hormones that have roles in urine formation.
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Aldosterone
  113. What is ADH relaeased by?
    Post pituitary Gland
  114. What is aldosterone released by?
    Adrenal gland
  115. This hormone causes an increased permeability of the DCT and collecting ducts to water.
    ADH
  116. What is the responsibility of ADH in urine formation?
    Reabsorption of water. "Keeps you hydrated"
  117. This hormone causes a greater reabsorption of sodium ions from the DCT.
    Aldosterone
  118. What is the function of ADH and Aldosterone together?
    Decrease urine volume
  119. Diagram Secretion
  120. Urine is approximately what percent water?
    95%
  121. Name four nitrogenous wastes found in the urine?
    • Urea
    • Uric Acid
    • Ammonia
    • Creatinine
  122. Urine also contains trace amounts of amino acids and various electrolytes such as what?
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
  123. The normal color of urine is due to pigments called what?
    Urochromes
  124. What are urochromes?
    End products of hemoglobin breakdown
  125. Name three things abnormally found in urine.
    • Blood
    • Proteins (Albumin)
    • Glucose
  126. Each kidney is connected to the urinary bladder by what?
    Ureters
  127. This process moves urine through the ureter and into the urinary bladder.
    Paristalsis
  128. Two functions of the urinary bladder
    • Stores Urine
    • Moves Urine into Urethra
  129. A triangular area within the bladder.
    Trigone
  130. The superior border to the trigone opens to the what?
    Ureters
  131. The inferior border of the trigone opens to the what?
    Urethra
  132. The empty bladder contains numerous folds of tissue called what?
    Rugae
  133. What is the fx of the rugae in a urinary bladder?
    Incrases the area of the bladder and allows it to stretch
  134. The smooth muscle of the urinary bladder is the what?
    Detrusor muscle
  135. Contractions of the detrusor muscle does what?
    Move urine out of the urinary bladder and into the urethra
  136. The _____ is the tube that connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
    Urethra
  137. The opening to the outside of the body.
    Urethral Oriface
  138. The process by which urine leaves the urinary baldder and passes through the urethra and finally the urethral oriface.
    Micturition
  139. Name the two sphincter muscles involved with micturition.
    Internal and External Urethral Sphincters
  140. Is the internal urethral sphincter voluntary or involuntary?
    Involuntary
  141. Is the external urethral sphincter voluntary or involuntary?
    Voluntary
  142. The need to release urine may be noticed when the urine in the bladder is at least ____mL?
    200
  143. When the amount in the bladder approches ____ mL, the emptying reflex begins.
    300 mL
  144. Identify four steps of the emptying reflex.
    • Parasympathetic impulses cause detrusor muscle contraction (Urgency)
    • Internal Urethral Sphincter relaxes
    • Urine partially enters urethra (Urgency greatens)
    • External urethral sphincter remains closed
  145. Name one cause of urinary retention in males.
    Prostatic Hypertrophy
  146. The benign enlargement of the prostate gland.
    Prostatic Hypertrophy
  147. Increased thirst.
    Polydipsia
  148. Increased Hunger
    Polyphagia
  149. Sperm cell formation.
    Spermatogenesis
  150. Where does spermatogenesis occur in the body?
    Seminiferous tubules of testes
  151. Diagram Spermatogenesis
    •              46
    •      23             23
    • 23      23    23      23

    • MATURATION OCCURS
    •    (Sperm are produced)
  152. Egg cell formation.
    Oogenesis
  153. Where does oogenesis occur in the body?
    Ovaries
  154. Diagram Oogensis
    •              46
    •      23             23
    • 23         23     23      23

    Small "23" has polar body
  155. This chromosome is not visible with a microscope.
    Chromatid
  156. Specific sequence of DNA that codes for specific proteins.
    Genes
  157. Chromosomes that have the same structures NOT the same gene.
    Homologous pairs of chromomes
  158. Where is a centromere located?
    In center of a double stranded chromosome.
  159. Process of cell division which leads to the production of egg and sperm cells.
    Meiosis
  160. In meiosis, what are events called during the first divison? The second?
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
  161. The pairing of homologous chromosomes.
    Synapsis
  162. During synapsis chromosomes become tightly intertwined with eachother, what is it called when chromatids break in one or more places and change parts with eachother exchanging genetic information?
    Crossing over
  163. What happens during interphase?
    Replication of the chromosomal material. Chromatins are present.
  164. Describe the chromatin in Interphase I.
    46 single stranded chromatin.
  165. Describe the chromatin in Interphase II.
    23 double stranded chromatin in each daughter cell.
  166. What happens during prophase?
    Chromosomes condense and become visible, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappears, spindle fibers form.
  167. Describe the chromosomes in Prophase I.
    46 double stranded chromosomes
  168. Describe the chromosomes in Prophase II.
    23 double stranded chromosomes in each daughter cell.
  169. What happens during metaphase?
    The synaptic pairs of homologous chromosomes pair line up in the center of the cell. Each centromere becomes associated with a spindle fiber.
  170. Describe the chromosomes in Metaphase I.
    46 Double stranded chromosomes
  171. Describe the chromosomes in Metaphase II.
    23 Double stranded chromosomes in each daughter cell
  172. What happens during anaphase I?
    The homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell.
  173. What happens during anaphase II?
    The centromeres separate and the chromosomes (chromatids) move to opposite poles of the cell.
  174. Describe the chromosomes in Anaphase I.
    46 Double strands
  175. Describe the chromosomes in Anaphase II.
    46 single strands in each daugher cell.
  176. What happens during Telophase I?
    The parent cell divides into two daughter cells with each daughter cell recieveing only one member of a homologous pair of chromosomes. Chromosomes assume their chromatin form, nucleoli and nuclear membranes reappear and the spindle fibers disappear.
  177. What happens during Telophase II?
    Each cell divides into two daughter cells, the nucleoli and nuclear membranes reappear and the spindle fibers disappear. Each new daughter cell contains 23 single stranded chromosomes.
  178. Describe the chromosomes in Telophase I.
    23 double strands in each daughter cell.
  179. Describe the chromosomes in Telophase I.
    23 single strands in each daughter cell.
  180. What is the indentation called between daughter cells during telophase?
    Cleavage furrow.
  181. The essential organ of the human reproductive system
    ovary
  182. What process is the ovary associated with?
    Oogenesis
  183. What hormones are produced by the ovary?
    Estrogen and Progesterone
  184. this ligament anchors the ovary to the uterus.
    Ovarian ligament
  185. This ligament connects the ovary and uterus to the pelvic wall.
    Broad ligament.
  186. At puberty, how many immature egg cells are in the ovary? How many become mature?
    • 400,000 immature
    • 400-500 mature
  187. The release of a mature egg cell into the body.
    Ovulation
  188. Typically how many eggs are released by ovulation per month?
    One
  189. Tube that connects the ovary and uterus.
    Fallopian tube
  190. The largest area of the fallopian tube at the base of the ovary.
    Infundibulum.
  191. What structures can be found on the infundibulum?
    Fimbriae
  192. What are fimbrae?
    Finger like structures off of the infundibulum. "Catches" an ovulated egg.
  193. The union of a sperm cell with an egg cell results in what? What is this process called?
    • Zygote
    • Fertilization
  194. Where does fertilization occur?
    Distal 13 of fallopian tube
  195. The embedding of fertilized egg cells into the endometrium of the uterus.
    implantation
  196. this occurs when implantation occurs outside the uterus. Typically in the fallopian tube.
    Eptopic Pregnancy
  197. Removal of ovary(s)
    Oopherectomy
  198. An oopherectomy may cause early onset _____.
    Menopause
  199. Removal of fallopian tube(s)
    Salpingectomy
  200. General term for the external female genitalia.
    Vulva
  201. Elevation of adipose tissue over the symphysis pubis.
    Mons pubis
  202. Large lip of the vagina, Outter fold of tissue, has thick pubic hair.
    Labia majora
  203. Small lip of the vagina, forms the borders of the vestibule, merges anterior to unite with the clitoris.
    Labia minora
  204. Which "lip" of the vagina contains erectile tissue?
    Labia majora
  205. Space between the lips of the labia minora
    Vestibule
  206. Erectile tissue that is highly sensitive and with stimulation causes the female orgasm.
    Clitoris
  207. Female foreskin covering part of the clitoris
    Prepuce
  208. Opening to the Urethra.
    Urethral oriface
  209. Opening to the vagina.
    Vaginal oriface
  210. Exocrine gland in female reproductive system, produces lubricant at the vaginal oriface for vaginal intercourse.
    Greater vestibular gland
  211. Exocrine gland, secretes mucous, opens at the urethral oriface.
    Paraurethral gland
  212. What is the fx of the paraurethral gland?
    Protects from pathogens entering urethra
  213. Upper dome shaped portion of the uterus above the oviducts.
    Fundus
  214. Main central portion of the uterus.
    Body
  215. Inferior one-third of the uterus.
    Cervix
  216. What seperates the uterine cavity from the cervical canal?
    Internal os
  217. What seperates the cervical canal from the vagina?
    External os.
  218. Recesses between the vaginal wall and the cervix. Projection of the cervix into the vagina.
    Fornix
  219. Outter serous layer of the female reproductive system
    Perimetrium
  220. Thickest layer of the female reproductive system made of smooth muscle.
    Myometrium
  221. Membrane with in the uterus. "Inner epithelial lining"
    Endometrium
  222. Removal of the uterus.
    Hysterectomy
  223. A sheet of connecting tissue in the female reproductive system.
    Broad ligament
  224. A cord of connecting tissue in the female reproductive system.
    Round ligament
  225. What two ligaments help anchor the uterus to the body wall and hold the uterus in place?
    • Round ligament
    • Broad ligament
  226. Identify the functions of Estrogen and Progesterone.
    Stimulates the development of the reproductive structures such as the vagina, uterus, ovary, oiducts, and other external structures. Promotes the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics as well such as, breasts, ducts, mamary glands, large deposits of adipose tissues in the breast thighs and buttocks.
  227. Name an additional fx of Progesterone that is not a fx of Estrogen.
    Promotes changes in the uterus during the menstrual cycle
  228. Fx of FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
    Stimulates follicles, produced in the anterior pituitary gland.
  229. Fx of LH (Luetinizing Hormone)
    Ovulation, Produced by anterior pituitary gland
  230. What is a follicle?
    Ovum and associated cells, promotes production of follicular cells.
  231. First menstrual period
    Menarche
  232. What is cramping caused by and its function?
    prostaglandins that are released by uterine glands to assist shedding
  233. Day 1-5 of the Menstrual cycle can be referred to as what?
    Menstrual Period
  234. What causes the bleeding during a menstrual period?
    The underlying capillaries breaking when the endometrial lining sheds.
  235. What happens during the "Menstrual Period" phase of the menstrual cycle?
    The endometrium sheds causing the underlying cappillaries to break, corpus luteum dies, cramping occurs
  236. In the "Menstrual Period" phase, what happens when the corpus luteum dies?
    Decrease levels of estrogen and progesterone
  237. If the number of days in a cycle changes, this is the only phase effected.
    Postmenstrual phase.
  238. What days are the Post menstrual phase on in a 28 day cycle?
    6-13
  239. What happens during the postmenstrual phase?
    FSH is released stimulating follicle evelopent which produces hormones. Mainly estrogen and some progesteronewhich in turn stimulate growth of the endometrium
  240. What day does ovulation occur on?
    Day 14
  241. What is ovulation caused by?
    A Leutenizing Hormone surge which also promotes the development of the corpus luteum
  242. What froms the corpus luteum?
    Forms from the ruptured follicle in ovulation
  243. What type of gland is the corpus luteum?
    Endocrine
  244. What hormones does the corpus luteum secrete and their fx?
    • Progesterone & Estrogen: Continue endometrial growth and also stimulate uterine glands to secrete nutrients such as glucose.
    • Inhibin: Inhibits release of FSH
  245. What hormone is present in a zygote?
    HCG (Human Choronic Gonadotropin)
  246. What happens to the corpus luteum in the final stage of menstruation if your are NOT pregnant?
    Corpus Luteum degenerates
  247. What happens to the corpus luteum in the final stage of menstruation if your are pregnant?
    Corpus Luteum is maintained
  248. What is the fx of HCG?
    Maintanins a functional corpus luteum
  249. What does a home pregnancy detect?
    HCG in the urine
  250. Connective tissue reminant in the corpus luteum?
    Corpus Albacens
  251. Name the fx of the vagina?
    • Birth Canal
    • Receptacle of sexual intercourse
    • Exit for menstrual flow
  252. What is the main organ of the male reproductive system?
    Testes
  253. Name two fx of the testes?
    • Testosterone
    • Sperm cell production
  254. What chromosome is present for a male baby?
    Y
  255. In the male there is the scrotum, what is the equivalent in the female?
    Labia majora
  256. In the male there is the testicle, what is the equivalent in the female?
    Ovary
  257. In the male there is the penis, what is the equivalent in the female?
    Clitoris
  258. In the male there is the prostate, what is the equivalent in the female?
    Skene's Gland
  259. In the male there is the Coulpers Gland, what is the equivalent in the female?
    Bartholins Gland
  260. Review the structures of a sperm cell, diagram and label
  261. How much is a typical male ejaculate?
    2-6 mL of semen
  262. what makes up semen?
    Accessory Organ Secretions + Sperm
  263. On average, how many sperm cells per mL of ejaculate?
    20-100 million
  264. On average, how many total sperm cells in a ejaculate?
    80-400 million
  265. What is a vasectomy?
    Surgical incision of the vas deferans
  266. Post vasectomy: What percent of fluid is still present for ejaculation?
    95%
  267. Normal body temp is 98.6, what is scrotal temperature? Why is it lower than body temp?
    • 95.6 degrees
    • Spermatogenesis occurs.
  268. This muscle regulates the position of the testicle.
    Cremaster muscle
  269. Cryptorchidism
    Testicle(s) do not descend into scrotum
  270. Fx of Epididymus
    Secrete glycogen and this nourishes sperm cells promoting maturation
  271. Where does the spermatic cord structures enter the body cavity?
    Inguinal Canal
  272. What is the shaft of the penis?
    Main central portion of the penis
  273. What is the erectile tissue in the male?
    Corpora cavernosum, within the penis
  274. Where does the ureter pass through in the penis??
    Corpora sponiosum
  275. What is the glans penis?
    Head of the penis, highly sensory
  276. Prepuce
    Foreskin
  277. What is a circumcision?
    Removal of the foreskin/prepuce
  278. Name three reasons for circumcison?
    • Cleanliness
    • Religion
    • Too Restrictive
  279. During pregnancy, what is present while the placenta is forming? For how long? Where is it located?
    • Corpus luteum
    • 2 months
    • Ovary
  280. After the placenta forms, how long is it present? Where is it located? What is it's nickname?
    • Final 7 months
    • Uterus
    • "After Birth"
  281. When an inner cell mass splits what is resulted during pregnancy?
    Twins, identical twins of same sex
  282. During pregnancy, what occurs when 2 egg cells are fertilized?
    Twins, fraternal twins
  283. Name four reasons there are so many sperm in a male ejaculate?
    • Poor morphology
    • Poor motility
    • Vagina acidicity
    • Wrong fallopian tube
  284. Pouch of skin where testes are held?
    Scrotum
  285. Dense connective tissue around testicles. 
    Tunica Albuginea
  286. Extensions of the tunica albuginea divide each testicle into a series of compartments called what?
    lobules
  287. Tightly coiled tubules located within the lobules. Spermatogenesis occurs here.
    Seminiferous tubules
  288. What two structures are located within the seminiferous tubules.
    Spermatogonia and the Sertoli cells
  289. Immature cells which may become sperm cells.
    Spermatogonia
  290. The supportive cells that help to regulate spermatogenesis and secrete inhibin.
    Sertoli cells
  291. These cells located between the seminiferous tubules. Secrete testosterone.
    Interstitial cells.
  292. When the sperm cells leave the seminiferous tubules, they enter what?
    Rete testis
  293. After the sperm cells enter the rete testis, they then enter what?
    Efferent ducts within the epididymus
  294. What does the epididymus become outside the testes?
    Vas deferens within the spermatic cord
  295. Name four structures within the spermatic cord?
    • Sperm duct (Vas deferens)
    • Spermatic a&v
    • Nerves
    • Lymphatic vessels
  296. What is the ejaculatory duct?
    Union of the vas deferens with urethra
  297. Fx of prostate gland?
    30% of semen volume. Semen gets its milky white color and becomes basic
  298. Fx of Cowpers gland?
    5% of semen volume. Lubricating gland. "pre-ejaculant"
  299. What is the seminal vesicle?
    60% of semen volume. Rich in fructose- energu secretes prostoglandins.
  300. What is the fx of prostoglandins in the seminal vesicles?
    Stimulate contractions of female reproductive tract including the fallopian tube aiding in sperm movement. Neutralizes acidic vagina and the male urethra helping sperm survive
  301. The enlargement and stiffening of the penis.
    Erection
  302. What happens for an erection to occur?
    Parasymphathetic nerve impulses to the arteries leading into the penis become dilated increasing bp within the penis. This inhibits venous blood flow away from the penis
  303. The climax of sexual stimulation?
    Emission
  304. What has to occur for a male orgasm?
    Emission and Ejaculation
  305. What is emission?
    The combination of sperm cells and secretions from the prostate gland and seminal vesicles in the urethra forming semen.
  306. The expulsion of semen thru the penile urethra to the outside of the penis.
    Ejaculation
  307. In a male, what does the Lutenizing hormone do?
    Promote stimulation of the interstitial cells which then secrete testosterone
  308. In a male what does FSH do?
    Stimulates the spermatogonia to undergo spermatogenesis.
  309. In a male, what does inhibin do?
    A hormone secreted by the supporting cells in the testicles. Regulates the anterior pituitary gland and prevents oversecretion of FSH
  310. Name four effects of testosterone on the male body?
    • Stimulates spermatogenisis
    • Maturation of sperm cells
    • Stimulates the decent of testicles
    • Develops male sercondary sexual characteristics such as body hair, thickening of vocal cords, increase muscular growth along with broad shoulders and a narrower waist
  311. Condition in which there is a developing offspring within the uterus due to fertilization.
    Pregnancy
  312. Fertilization is complete when?
    Nuclear membranes of the sperm cell and egg cell merge
  313. The merging of sperm cell and egg cell leads in the formation of what?
    • 46 ss chromosomes
    • (23 homologous pairs)
  314. Fertilized egg cells implant itself outside the uterus most commonly in the fallopian tube.
    Ectopic pregnancy
  315. After a zygote is formed, it undergos what?
    Mitosis
  316. Mitosis of the zygote typically occurs when?
    36 hours of its formation
  317. The period which the division of the zygote occurs into 16 cells?
    Cleavage Period
  318. The solid mass of the 16 cells resulting from the cleavage period?
    Morula
  319. How many days did does it take for the morula to develop? Where is it developed?
    • 3 days
    • Fallopian tube
  320. The morula then will become a what?
    Blastocyst
  321. What is a blastocyst?
    A hollow ball of cells that implants itself in the endometrium around day 7 after fertilization.
  322. Around the time of implantation, the blastocyst becomes what?
    Inner cell mass?
  323. What is the inner cell mass?
    The body of the offspring will develop from this
  324. The inner cell mass signals the beginning of what?
    Embryonic period
  325. After two months the embryo is now considered what?
    Fetus
  326. What is HCG?
    Secreted by zygote shortly after fertilization. Causes corpus luteum to be maintained and it continues to secrete prgesterone and estrogen
  327. What is Placental Pregesterone?
    Continues and maintains growth and development of the endometrium stimulates growth and development of alveolar gland within the breast
  328. What is Placental estrogen?
    Also continues and maintains growth and development of endometrium. Promotes enlargement of the vagina. Stimulates growth and development of the alveolar ducts
  329. What is Placental Relaxin?
    Relaxes symphasis pubis during. Promotes dilation of the cervix during the final week of pregnancy
  330. What is Placental lactogen?
    Aids progesterone and estrogen in breast development during pregnancy
  331. What is Oxytocin?
    Powerful stimulator of myometrial contractions
  332. Process in which the muscular contractions of the myometrium force the fetus through the birth canal.
    Labor
  333. The release of the placenta through the birth canal caused by uterine contractions
    After birth
  334. Mammary glands that produce milk
    Alveolar gland
  335. Connects the alveolar glands with the nipple
    Alveolar Duct
  336. This tissue determines the size of the breast.
    Adipose tissue
  337. Suspend the breast in place and maintain its shape.
    Suspensory ligaments
  338. Pigmented area around the nipple containing sebaceous glands.
    Areola
  339. What is the fx of the sebaceous glands within the nipple?
    Secrete sebum which prevents the drying of nipple during suckling.
  340. Fx of Ovarian Estrogen?
    Helps the alveolar ducts branch and grow
  341. What is the fx of ovarian progesterone?
    Alveolar glands development and growth
  342. What is the Anterior Pituitary gland Prolactin?
    Promotes lactation
  343. What is the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin?
    Stimulates contraction of myoepithelial glands to stimulate milk ejection out of the breast
  344. What are uterine contractions thought to be stimulated by?
    prostaglandins

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