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2013-06-01 15:06:36
Characteristics Body Sites Fungal Pathogens Yeasts Fungi

Characteristics, Body Sites, Fungal Pathogens, Yeasts, Opportunistic Fungi
Show Answers:

  1. What is the term for an organism capable of living on decaying organic material?
  2. What are long, branching filaments that come together to form the mycelium?
  3. What are single-celled conidia?
  4. What are multicellular, large conidia?
  5. What are conidia resulting from the fragmentation of hyphae into individual cells?
  6. What is conidia that form as the result of budding?
  7. What type of conidia results from terminal cells in the hyphae that enlarge and have thick walls and can survive in adverse environmental conditions?
  8. What type of conidia is formed by being pushed through a small pore in the parent cell?
  9. What type of conidia is tube-shaped conidia that can be branched?
  10. What type of conidia are vase shaped conidia and the remaining parent outer cell wall takes on a saw-toothed appearance as the conidia are released?
  11. What are spores contained in a saclike structure called?
  12. What are spores contained in a club shaped structure called?
  13. What are spores resulting from the fusion of cells from 2 different hyphae called?
  14. What are spores resulting from the fusion of 2 identical hyphae?
  15. What are fungi that undergo sexual reproduction termed?
    Perfect fungi
  16. What are fungi that undergo asexual reproduction termed?
    Imperfect fungi
  17. What media is:
    General purpose, nutrionally poor medium mildly selective for fungi
    Agar can have an acidic pH (5.6) that inhibits most bacteria
    The modified agar has a neutral pH and better supports growth of fungi but is less inhibitory for bacteria
    Sabouraud dextrose agar
  18. What media is:
    A nonselective medium for isolation of all fungi
    Contains dextrose, peptone, and brain heart infusion
    Can be made selective for dimorphic fungi by the addition of cyclohexamide, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin
    Sabouraud brain heart infusion agar (SABHI)
  19. What media:
    Used to grow most fungi, especially those from sterile body sites
    Contains brain heart infusion and sheeps blood
    Can be made selective for dimorphic fungi by the addition of cylohexamide, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin
    Brain heart infusion agar with blood (BHIB)
  20. What media:
    Used to grow most fungal pathogens
    Especially formulated to recover the cyclohexamide sensitive cryptococcus
    Contain gentamicin and chloramphenicol
    Inhibitory mould agar (IMA)
  21. What media:
    Used to isolate the dermatophytes
    Contains cyclohexamide and gentamicin and phenol red as a pH indicator
    Dermatophyte test medium (DTM)
  22. What media:
    Used to enhance conidia development
    Enhances pigment development of Trichophyton rubrum
    Potato dextrose agar (PDA)
  23. What media:
    Are selective and differential media to grow C. neoformans - which forms black to brown colonies due to the activity of phenol oxidase
    Chloramphenicol can be added to made the media selective
    Bird seed (niger seed) and caffeic acid agars
  24. What media
    Is used to differentiate Candida species
    Shows chlamydoconidia formation
    Cornmeal agar with Tween 80
  25. What do agars containing rice, casein, and other nutrients used to differentiate?
    Trichophyton species
  26. What are fungal media incubated at and how long?
    • 30 degrees celcius
    • Several days to several weeks
  27. What techniques are used to obtain fungus material for slide preparations?
    • Tease mount method: dissecting needle is used to pull apart a fungal colony, which is placed on a slide
    • Cellophane tape method: Cellophane tape is used to transfer aerial hyphae from the colony to a microscop slide for examination
    • Slide culture method: uses a block of agar overlaid with a cover slip
  28. What is used to stain and preserve fungal elements in culture isolates?
    Lactophenol cotton blue wet mount
  29. What is used to dissolve nonfungal materials in skin, hair, and nail samples?
    KOH (potassium hydroxide)
  30. What can be used to reveal capsules surrounding C. neoformans found in CSF?
    India ink
  31. What is a fluorochrome that stains chitin found in the cell wall of the fungi?
    Calcofluor white stain
  32. What types of fungal pathogens are found in blood?
    • Candida species
    • Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • Histoplasma capsulatum
    • Cryptococcus neoforman
  33. What types of fungal pathogens are found in CSF?
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Candida species
    • Histoplasma capsulatum
    • Coccidiodes immitis
  34. What types of fungal pathogens are found in Hair?
    • Microsporum
    • Trichophyton
  35. What types of fungal pathogens are found in Skin?
    • Candida
    • Microsporum
    • Trichophyton
    • Epidermophyton
    • Blasomyces dermatitidis
  36. What types of fungal pathogens are found in Lungs?
    • Candida albicans
    • Aspergillus
    • Rhizopus
    • Penicillium
    • Histoplasma capsulatum
    • Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • Coccidiodes immitis
  37. What types of fungal pathogens are found in throat?
    • Candida albicans
    • Geotrichum candidum
  38. What types of fungal pathogens are found in urine?
    • Candida albicans
    • Candida glabrata
  39. What types of fungal pathogens are found in genital tract?
    Candida albicans
  40. What fungi:
    Cause infections is known as zygomycoses and mucormycoses
    Produces allergic reactions in susceptible individuals
    Some produce toxins that can cause GI disturbances
    Blood infections can lead to CNS disorders
  41. What kind of dermatophyte infects nails, hair, and skin?
  42. What kind of dermatophyte infects skin and nails?
  43. What kind of dermatophyte infects hair and skin?
  44. What is an infection of the spaces between the toes?
    Tinea pedis or athlete's foot
  45. What causes Tinea pedis or athlete's foot?
    • Trichophyton species
    • Epidermophyton species
  46. What is an fungal infection of smooth skin?
    Tinea corporis or ringworm
  47. What causes tinea corpus ro ringworm?
    • Microsporum species
    • Trichophyton species
  48. What is a fungal infection of the nails?
    Tinea unguium or onychomycosis
  49. What causes tinea unguium or onychomycosis?
    • Epidermophyton species
    • Trichophyton species
  50. What is a fungal infection of the scalp?
    Tinea capitis
  51. What causes Tinea capitis?
    • Microsporum species
    • Trichophyton species
  52. What is a fungal infection of beard hair?
    Tinea barbae or barber's itch
  53. What causes tinea barbae or barber's itch?
    • Microsporum species
    • Trichophyton species
  54. What is a fungal infection of the groin?
    Tinea cruris or jock itch
  55. What causes tinea cruris or jock itch?
    • Trichophyton species
    • Epidermophyton species
  56. What is a fungal infection of the scalp hair and less frequently the beard, mustache, and axillary and pubic hairs and characterized by the presence of hard, dark nodules on the hair shaft?
    Black piedra
  57. What causes Black piedra?
    Piedra hortaea
  58. What is a fungal infection of facial, axillary, or genital hairs and less commonly the scalp and characterized by the presence of soft, white, yellowish, beige, or greenish nodules on the hair shaft?
    White piedra
  59. What causes fungal scalp infections?
    Trichosporon ovoides
  60. What causes most cases of pubic white piedra?
    Trichosporon inkin
  61. What is a granulomatous infection of the subcutaneous tissue causing cutaneous abscesses?
  62. Name the causative agents of mycetoma
    • Pseudoallescheria boydii
    • Exophiala
    • Acremonium
    • Madurella
  63. What is a localized fungal infection characterized by chronic, hard, tumorlike lesions?
  64. Name the causative agent of chromoblastomycosis
    Fonsecaea pedrosoi
  65. What is a superficial or subcutaneous fungal infection that can become systemic?
  66. Name some fungi that cause phaeohyphomycosis
    • Bipolaris
    • Curvularia
    • Phialophora
    • Alternaria
  67. What is a subcutaneous fungal infection, where lymph and pulmonary infections can also occur?
  68. What causes sporotrichosis?
    Sporothrix schenckii (a dimorphic fungus)
  69. What fungi has been associated with guano, in particular from starlings and bats?
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  70. What is a chronic granulomatous disease of the lungs and skin that can spread to the liver and spleen and mostly found in South America?
  71. What causes paracoccidioidomycosis?
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
  72. What fungi are nonfilamentous (do NOT produce hyphae) fungi found in the lower respiratory trat of humans and other animals?
    Pneumocysitis species