Pharmacology lesson 13
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Antimicrobial agents that are derived from other living microorganisms are called:
Damage to the eight cranial nerve, or ________, can occur from drug therapy, particularly from aminoglycosides.
Examples of antimicrobial agents that are potentially nephrotoxic include:
When hypoprothrombinemia is present, the usual treatment is administration of ________.
Unless contraindicated by coexisting disease, pts taing antimicrobial agents should be encouraged to have an adequate fluid intake of ________ to ________ ML per 24 hours.
2,000 to 3,000
________ were the first true antibiotics to be grown and used agains pathogenic bacteria in human beings.
The ________ class of antibiotics should not be administered during the last half of pregnancy or while breastfeeding; do not administer to children until permanent teeth are in place.
The ________ class is not considered a true antibiotic; its action is to inhibit biosynthesis of folic acid, which results in bacterial cell death.
The ________ class of antimicrobials is reserved for serious life-threatening infections that are vancomycin-resistant.
________ is required for aerobic bacteria growth.
In general, a person who is allergic to sulfonamides should not take ________ oral hypoglycemic agents.
________ agents kill bacterial pathogens.
Two major adverse effects associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics are ________ and ________.
ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
A microorganism that is about to grow and function without oxygen:
________ restrains or reduces the development or reproduction of bacteria.
Overgrowth of organisms resistant to current antibiotic therapy is called a ________.
________ causes elevation in AST, ALT, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase.
________ can cause dizziness, tinnitus, and progressive hearing loss.
Reduction in formation and excretion of urine:
________ is characterized by poor blood clotting.
Brand name for tolnaftate:
Brand name for ofloxacin:
Brand name for ampicillin:
Brand name for cefditoren:
Brand name for azithromycin:
Brand name for cephalexin:
Brand name for cefixime:
Brand name for cefaclor:
________ may be used as an alternative to penicillins for people allergic to penicillin.
________ may cause fatal bone marrow depression.
Sulfonamides, when given to a pt taking sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agents, may cause ________.
Obtain a culture and sensitivity ________ the medication is started.
Penicillin was the first antibiotic and it was developed from ________.
________ determines which medications will destroy the pathogen (sensitive).
Culture & Sensitivity
Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
- laryngeal edema
- chest tightness
- cardiopulmonary collapse
The peak level is the ________ level of the drug in the blood; it is drawn ________ after a dose is given.
max level; 1/2 hour
The trough level is the ________ level of the drug in the blood; it is drawn ________ before the next dose is given.
lowest; 1/2 hour
- I & O for decreased UOP
- blood work for elevated BUN/creatinine
- U/A for decreased urine specific gravity
- casts/protein in urine
- frank blood/smoky-colored urine
- and more than 3 rbcs in urine
- report: UOP below 30 mL/hr and any abnormal lab findings
Assess bloodwork for:
- anorexia, n/v, jaundice, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly
- Assess bloodwork for: LFTs including bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and prothrombin time (PT/INR)
Has effects on the aucoustic/vestibulocochlear nerve AKA:
It is especially a concern with:
- 8th cranial nerve
- aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
A ________ is a new infection with different resistant bacteria as a result of killing normal flora in intestines or on mucous membranes.
________ infections and ________ are the most common.
- yeast; colitis
s/s of superinfection/secondary infection:
- black furry tongue or white patches in mouth
- cold sores
Recommend adding ________ or ________ to the diet to restore normal intestinal flora.
The most common s/e for antimicrobials are:
Assess for hx of ________ reactions- exaggerated sunburn, itching, rash, urticaria, pruritus, and scaling. Avoid sunlight especially between ________ am and ________ pm.
- 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
Caustion pt taking ________ and antimicrobials together because pregnancies have occurred.
NEVER mix ________ with other meds in a syringe or IV infusion.
- gentamicin (Garamycin)
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