Pharmacology lesson 13

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mel26704
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213795
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Pharmacology lesson 13
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2013-04-16 01:53:04
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Antimicrobials
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Antimicrobials; Lesson 13
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  1. Antimicrobial agents that are derived from other living microorganisms are called:
    antibiotics
  2. Damage to the eight cranial nerve, or ________, can occur from drug therapy, particularly from aminoglycosides.
    ototoxicity
  3. Examples of antimicrobial agents that are potentially nephrotoxic include:
    • aminoglycosides
    • tetracycline
    • cephalosporins
  4. When hypoprothrombinemia is present, the usual treatment is administration of ________.
    vitamin K
  5. Unless contraindicated by coexisting disease, pts taing antimicrobial agents should be encouraged to have an adequate fluid intake of ________ to ________ ML per 24 hours.
    2,000 to 3,000
  6. ________ were the first true antibiotics to be grown and used agains pathogenic bacteria in human beings.
    Penicillins
  7. The ________ class of antibiotics should not be administered during the last half of pregnancy or while breastfeeding; do not administer to children until permanent teeth are in place.
    tetracycline
  8. The ________ class is not considered a true antibiotic; its action is to inhibit biosynthesis of folic acid, which results in bacterial cell death.
    sulphonamides
  9. The ________ class of antimicrobials is reserved for serious life-threatening infections that are vancomycin-resistant.
    streptogramins
  10. ________ is required for aerobic bacteria growth.
    oxygen
  11. In general, a person who is allergic to sulfonamides should not take ________ oral hypoglycemic agents.
    sulfonylurea
  12. ________ agents kill bacterial pathogens.
    bactericidal
  13. Two major adverse effects associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics are ________ and ________.
    ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
  14. A microorganism that is about to grow and function without oxygen:
    anaerobic
  15. ________ restrains or reduces the development or reproduction of bacteria.
    bacteriostatic
  16. Overgrowth of organisms resistant to current antibiotic therapy is called a ________.
    secondary infection
  17. ________ causes elevation in AST, ALT, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase.
    hepatoxicity
  18. ________ can cause dizziness, tinnitus, and progressive hearing loss.
    ototoxicity
  19. Reduction in formation and excretion of urine:
    oliguria
  20. ________ is characterized by poor blood clotting.
    hypoprothrobinemia
  21. Brand name for tolnaftate:
    Tinactin
  22. Brand name for ofloxacin:
    Floxin
  23. Brand name for ampicillin:
    Principen
  24. Brand name for cefditoren:
    spectracef
  25. Brand name for azithromycin:
    Zithromax
  26. Brand name for cephalexin:
    Keflex
  27. Brand name for cefixime:
    Suprax
  28. Brand name for cefaclor:
    Ceclor
  29. ________ may be used as an alternative to penicillins for people allergic to penicillin.
    Cephalosporins
  30. ________ may cause fatal bone marrow depression.
    Chloramphenicol
  31. Sulfonamides, when given to a pt taking sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agents, may cause ________.
    hypoglycemia
  32. Obtain a culture and sensitivity ________ the medication is started.
    before
  33. Penicillin was the first antibiotic and it was developed from ________.
    mold
  34. ________ determines which medications will destroy the pathogen (sensitive).
    Culture & Sensitivity
  35. Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
    • laryngeal edema
    • stridor
    • dyspnea
    • chest tightness
    • angioedema
    • shock
    • cardiopulmonary collapse
  36. The peak level is the ________ level of the drug in the blood; it is drawn ________ after a dose is given.
    max level; 1/2 hour
  37. The trough level is the ________ level of the drug in the blood; it is drawn ________ before the next dose is given.
    lowest; 1/2 hour
  38. Neprotoxicity:

    Monitor:
    • I & O for decreased UOP
    • blood work for elevated BUN/creatinine
    • U/A for decreased urine specific gravity
    • casts/protein in urine
    • frank blood/smoky-colored urine
    • and more than 3 rbcs in urine
    • report:  UOP below 30 mL/hr and any abnormal lab findings
  39. Hepatotoxicity:

    S/s:

    Assess bloodwork for:
    • anorexia, n/v, jaundice, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly
    • Assess bloodwork for:  LFTs including bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and prothrombin time (PT/INR)
  40. Ototoxicity:

    Has effects on the aucoustic/vestibulocochlear nerve AKA:

    It is especially a concern with:
    • 8th cranial nerve
    • aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
  41. A ________ is a new infection with different resistant bacteria as a result of killing normal flora in intestines or on mucous membranes.

    ________ infections and ________ are the most common.
    • superinfection/secondary
    • yeast; colitis
  42. s/s of superinfection/secondary infection:
    • stomatitis/glossitis
    • black furry tongue or white patches in mouth
    • colitis
    • vaginitis
    • candidiasis
    • cold sores
  43. Recommend adding ________ or ________ to the diet to restore normal intestinal flora.
    • buttermilk
    • yogurt
  44. The most common s/e for antimicrobials are:
    nausea/vomiting/diarrhea
  45. Assess for hx of ________ reactions- exaggerated sunburn, itching, rash, urticaria, pruritus, and scaling.  Avoid sunlight especially between ________ am and ________ pm.
    • photosensitivity
    • 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  46. Caustion pt taking ________ and antimicrobials together because pregnancies have occurred.
    oral contraceptives
  47. Antimicrobial categories:
    • antibiotics
    • antituberculars
    • antifungals
    • antivirals
    • anthelmintics
  48. Antibiotic categories:
    • aminoglycosides
    • carbapenems
    • cephalosporins
    • macrolides
    • penicillins
    • quinolones
    • sulfonamides
    • tetracyclines
    • micellaneous
  49. NEVER mix ________ with other meds in a syringe or IV infusion.
    aminogycides
  50. Common aminoglycides:
    • gentamicin (Garamycin)
    • streptomycin
    • tobramycin

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