Chemistry Final

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Chemistry Final
2013-04-15 22:40:31
gryko jsu chemistry final

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  1. Which transition in a hydrogen atom emits the shortest wavelength photon?
    n=6 to n=1
  2. What is the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric effect?
    Such wavelength that wavelength shorter than it will eject electron
  3. Diameter of a nucleus is approximately ______  times smaller than the diameter of atom.
  4. What is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle?
  5. The wavelength of blue light is approx. ___, green light ___, and red light ___ (in nm).
    • 400
    • 530
    • 700
  6. How many electrons can be put on orbitals having main quantum number n=4?
  7. The principle (or main) quantum number is 2. What orbitals are possible for this quantum number?
    2s and 2p
  8. What is the Aufbau Principle?
    electrons fill orbitals starting at the lowest possible energy levels before filling higher levels (e.g. 1s before 2s).
  9. What is the Pauli Principle?
    no two identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously
  10. What is the Hund's Rule?
    electrons fill degenerate orbitals (i.e. orbitals that have the same energy) in such a way as to have maximum number of unpaired spins
  11. Paramagnetic atoms or molecules must have ________ electrons.
  12. Diamagnetic atoms or molecules are _______ by a magnet.
  13. The valence electron configuration of elements that have positive (or very small) electron affinity is _______.
    group 2, ns2
  14. How can you tell which element is the most electronegative?
    The one closest to phosphorus
  15. Which oxide is more acidic: carbon dioxide or sulfur trioxide?
    sulfur trioxide
  16. Which positive metal cations have the same electron configuration as fluoride ion?
    Na2+, Mg2+, Al3+
  17. What is the first law of thermodynamics?
  18. When the quantity is transferred from the system to surroundings, the sign should be ______.
  19. When the quantity is transferred to the system from the surroundings, the sign should be _______.
  20. A closed system can exchange:
    energy but cannot exchange matter.
  21. An open system can exchange:
    heat, work, and mass.
  22. What is Balmer's formula?
    • where n=3, 4, 5, and 6
  23. What is de Brogile's formula?
  24. What is the sequence of orbitals?
    1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p
  25. Where are the elements with the largest atomic radii located on the periodic table?
    bottom right
  26. Where are the elements with the largest ionization energies located on the periodic table?
    bottom right
  27. Where are the elements with the largest electron affinity located on the periodic table?
    group 17
  28. How do alkali metals react?
    They are very reactive and react with water
  29. How do alkaline earth metals react?
    Their reactivity increases with atomic number. Especially reactive with oxygen and halogens
  30. What is lattice energy?
    energy that is required to completely separate one mole of solid, ionic compounds into ions in gas state
  31. What is electronegativity?
    the ability to attract an electron
  32. What is N in a Lewis dot formula?
    the number of the valence electrons needed to achieve noble gas configurations (2 for H, 8 for everything else)
  33. What is A in a Lewis dot formula?
    the number of valence electrons available (look at group number)
  34. What is S in a Lewis dot formula?
    • S= N - A
    • S/2=number of bonds
  35. How do you find the formal charge of an atom?
    FC=(number of valence electrons)-[(number of bonds)+(number of unshared electrons)]
  36. Determine the molecular geometry: AB2
  37. Determine the molecular geometry: AB3
    trigonal planar
  38. Determine the molecular geometry: AB2U
  39. Determine the molecular geometry: AB4
  40. Determine the molecular geometry: AB3U
    trigonal pyramidal
  41. Determine the molecular geometry: AB2U2
  42. Determine the molecular geometry: AB5
    trigonal bipyramidal
  43. Determine the molecular geometry: AB4U
  44. Determine the molecular geometry: AB3U2
  45. Determine the molecular geometry: AB2U3
  46. Determine the molecular geometry: AB6
  47. Determine the molecular geometry: AB5U
    square pyramid
  48. Determine the molecular geometry: AB4U2
    square planar
  49. What is the coefficient of M when the following equation is completed and balanced if M is an alkali metal?
    M(s)+H2O(l) ->
  50. The principle quantum number of the first d subshell is ___.
  51. There are ____ unpaired electrons in a ground state fluorine atom.
  52. What color of visible light has the highest energy?
  53. All of the _____ have a valence shell electron configuration ns1.
    alkali metals
  54. The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons is best quantified by the ______.