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Society of Automotive Engineers
American Iron and Steel Institute
American Society of Testing and Materials
What does ANSI do?
Facilitates the development of standards and acts as the US representative to the International Standards Organization.
In the four digit system that SAE and AISI use for identifying steels:
a. The first digit represents____________
b. The second digit represents_________
c. The third and fourth digit represent_______
Primary alloying element
Percentage of primary alloying element
The percentage of carbon content
1040 steel contains what percentage of carbon?
The major classes of steels we discussed were:
- a. Carbon Steels
- b. Alloy Steels
- c. HSLA Steels
- d. Stainless Steels
- e. Tool Steels
The 11xx and 12xx classes of Carbon steels have been reformulated, invreasing Phosphorous and/or Silicon in order to improve _________. These are called ______ _______ steels.
While the addition of sulfur and phosphorous to steels improve machinability, they also _______ the steel.
The 15xx class of Carbon steel has increased _ to improve _________.
HSLA steels have high _________ and low ____.
HSLA steels ate usually 20-30% _________ than carbon steel of the same strength.
HSLA steels are more resistant to __ than most carbon steels due to their lack of ________.
a. Are used to machine other steels
b. Contain significantly MORE alloying elements than alloy steels
c. Are much more highly processed and refined than Carbon and Alloy Steels.
Classification of tool steels is largely based on _ characteristics.
The 4 major categories of Tool Steels are:
- a. Cold Work
- b. Shock Resisting
- c. Hot Work
- d. High Speed
In general Tool Steels are:
- a. More Expensive
- b. Have better Hardenability
- c. Are easier to Heat Treat
- d. Are more difficult to machine
A major difference between Carbon/Alloy steels and Tool steels is that Tool steels contain embedded ___________.
Tool steels have high ________ and ________ resistance.
Stainless Steels are alloys of _______, __________ and other elements.
To be classified as a stainless steel, a steel must:
- a. Contain a minimum of 10.5% Chromium
- b. Exhibit passivity
__________ is the spontaneous formation of a hard non-reactive surface film that inhibits further corrosion.
Chromium based stainless steels were originally considered to have poor corrosion resistance because they reacted badly with ___________ _______.
_____________, do not undergo a Crystalline phase change and therefore cannot be ________ ________.
- Ferritic SS's
- heat treated
Ferritic SS's should not be used at temperatures above 650°F because they tend to become ______.
The 4 categories of Stainless steels are:
- a. Austenitic
- b. Duplex
- c. Marensitic
- d. Ferritic
steels containing more than 2% carbon are called ____ _____.
Steel with very high carbon has almost no ________. It can only be cast or machined into the desired shape.
Gray cast iron has little _____ strength, but is very good in _______ applications.
White cast iron is very hard and brittle. It can't be _________ or __________.
Malleable cast iron is a ______ ________ version of white cast iron.
White cast iron is made up of mostly ______.
Non ferrous metals do not contain _______.
__________ is one of the oldest metals known and used by man.
______ is an alloy of copper and tin.
_________ is an alloy of copper and zinc.
What is the purpose of adding alloying metals to copper?
- a. Improve Strength
- b. Improve hardness
- c. Improve Ductility
________ is the third most abundant element on the earth, after oxygen and silicon.
What metal is derived primarily from seawater?
__________ ________ are extremely resistant to heat and wear.
________ is used in medical applications for artificial joint replacements.
The greatest use for lead is in _______ _______.
_______ is often used for Galvanizing steels.
___________ is the most biocompatible metal known and has a stiffness similar to that of the human bone.
________ is the lightest of the structural metals and is used in lightweight applications where strength is required.
_________ exists nowhere in nature in a pure form, and is always mixed with other elements. Properties include: corrosion resistance, lightweight, very good conductivity, and high strength-to-weight ratio.
_____________ is known for its high thermal conductivity ( 10 times that of steel) and high electrical conductivity.
Surface engineering as we discussed it refers to altering the surface of a material in order to:
- Alter it's appearance
- Alter it's dimensions
- Alter properties
- Reduce cost or add value
Real surfaces are complex. At magnification they are covered with:
- Dirt, dust, contaminants
Four major fields of Surface Engineering are:
- Surface Modification
- Surface Regeneration
- Surface coating
Surface cleaning can involve:
- Thermal treatments
- Co2 blasting
Surface modification involves:
- Diffusion treatments
- Selective hardening
- Corona treating
- Cryo treating
Surface regeneration requires things like:
- Mechanical finishing
Surface coatings involve:
- Powder Coats
- Plastic thermal sprays
voids or holes in the material that come to the surface
oftentimes a catastrophic defect
in powder metallurgy, it's a design in the feature
Particle impingement are processes like:
- Shot blasting
- Sand blasting
- Glass blasting
In ____________, an electrochemical process is used to deposit another metal, like nickel or chrome, on top of a base material.
One problem with electroplating is that it tends to ______ __ on the corners.
____________ _________ is only .0001 to .0002" thick, greatly improves surface hardness and significantly reduces the coefficient of friction.
________ _________ ________ is a process that builds up the coating atom by atom.
Physical vapor deposition
Passivation is the __________ transformation of a metal's surface into the passive state, in which corrosion is strongly inhibited.
_________ __________ change the surface layer of the work piece to a different chemical compound.
Conversion coatings are only __________ ______, not corrosion proof.
Some types of conversion coatings are:
- Hot Black oxide
- Cold black oxide