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  1. Genome
    the complete set of genes that an organism possesses

    30,000-80,000 genes and 23 pairs of chromosomes
  2. Heritability
    • proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be explained or accounted for by genetic variance
    • OR

    proportion of pheotypic variance that is attributable to genetic variance
  3. Environmentality
    proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals attributable to environmental variance
  4. Behavioral Genetics Methods
    • selective breeding
    • family studies
    • twin studies
    • adoption studies
  5. Twin Studies
    estimates heritability by gauging whether identical twins (MZ, 100%) are more similar than fraternal twins (DZ, 50%)

    to calculate heritability: 2(rmz - 4dz)
  6. Adoption Studies
    positive correlations between adoptive children and adoptive parents provide evidence of environmental influence

    positive correlations between adopted children and genetic parents provide evidence of genetic influence
  7. Shared vs. Non-shared Environmental Influences
    environment has influences primarily in the form of nonshared variables; shared environment has little impact
  8. Shared Environmental Influences
    features of the environment shared by siblings in the family environment (ex. number of books in home)
  9. Non-shared Environmental Influences
    features of the environment that differ across siblings in the family environment (ex. different friends and teachers)
  10. Freud - Psychic Energy
    powers the mind; believed to motivate ALL human behavior

    instincts (sex and aggression) are the source of psychic energy
  11. Freud - Hydraulic Theory
    model of emotional or instinctive pressures and their release; aggression is a force that builds relentlessly without cause unless released
  12. Freud - Instincts
    represents inborn, unconscious portion of the personality
  13. Freud - Life Instincts

    promote positive, constructive behavior
  14. Freud - Death Instincts

    responsible for aggression and destructiveness
  15. Freud - Pleasure Principle
    psycholanalytic concept describing people seeking pleasure and avoiding suffering (pain) in order to satisfy their biological and psychological needs

    driven force of the id
  16. Psychic Determinism
    personality and behavior are determined more by psychological factors, with unconscious portions of our personality influencing thought, feeling and behavior

    there is a reason behind every thought, feeling or behavior
  17. Freud - Personality Structure
    people and born with basic needs or instincts

    each person faces the task of figuring out how to meet his/her basic needs in a world that frustrates these efforts

    personality develops out of a person's struggles with this task and is reflected through the way they carry out this task
  18. Freud - Psychoanalytic Personality THeory
    concerns how people cope with their sexual and aggressive instincts within the constraints of civilized society

    one part of the mind creates the urges, another has a sense of what society expects, and another tries to satisfy those urges within the bounds of reality and society
  19. Tripartite Personality Structure :
    Id, Ego, Super-Ego
    • personality has 3 parts:
    • id - wants immediate satisfaction with no consideration for reality
    • ego - meets the needs of the id by taking reality into account
    • super-ego - inhibits the biological instincts of the id
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  20. Freud - Intrapsychic Conflicts
    occur when the id, ego, and super-ego clash

    ego strives to prevent anxiety of guilt associated with conscious awareness of unacceptable id impulses
  21. Objective Anxiety
    occurs in response to real, external threat to a person
  22. Neurotic Anxiety
    occurs when there is direct conflict between the id and the ego
  23. Moral Anxiety
    caused by conflict between the ego and super-ego
  24. Defense Mechanisms - Denial
    not acknowledging that there is a problem
  25. Defense Mechanisms - Repression
    suppressing a memory until it disappears into the subconscious
  26. Defense Mechanisms - Projection
    putting your own beliefs or behavior onto someone else
  27. Defense Mechanisms - Displacement
    showing emotion toward someone or something completely unrelated to that which caused the emotion
  28. Defense Mechanisms - Rationalization
    making up explanations for something that has happened
  29. Defense Mechanisms - Regression
    acting in a way that is not typical for your age
  30. Therapeutic Relationship - Patient Resistance
    patient blocks memories from conscious memory
  31. Therapeutic Relationship - Patient Transference
    the redirection of a patient's feelings for a significant person to the therapist
  32. Therapeutic Relationship - Repetition Compulsion
    repetition of a traumatic even or its circumstances over and over again
  33. Five Postulates of Modern Day Psychoanalysis
    1. Unconscious plays a large role in life, but is not the universal influence Freud held it was

    2. Behavior reflects compromises in conflict between mental processes

    3. Childhood plays an important role in persoality development, particularaly in shaping adult relationship styles

    4. Mental representations of self and others guide interactions with others

    5. Personality development involves not just regulating sexual and aggressive feelings, but also moving from an immature socially dependent way of relating to others to a mature independent relationship style
  34. Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
    8 stages of psychosocial development with unique developmental teasks

    developmental change occurs throughout life span
  35. Erikson - Identity
    an inner sense of who we are, what makes us unique, feeling of wholeness and sense of continuity over time
  36. Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
    addresses biological, social, situational, and personal influences
  37. Erikson - Crisis
    • must adaptively (acquire strengths and assests needed for the next stage) or maladaptively (less likely to be able to adapt to later problems) cope with each task in each developmental stage
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  38. Object Relations Theory
    emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood
  39. Object Relations Theory Assumptions
    internal wishes, desires, and urges of child not as important as developing relationships with significant others

    others, particularly the mother, become internalized by the child in the form of mental objects

    first social attachments that infant develops form prototypes for all future meaningful relationships
  40. Attachment
    a strong affectional bond between infants and their caregivers
  41. Secure Attachment
    infant feels safe around their caregiver, enjoy exploring new environments, and often use the caregiver as a "safe home base"
  42. Insecure/Avoidant Attachment
    infant doesn't rely on their caregivers for security and often avoids close contact with them
  43. Insecure/Ambivalent Attachment
    infant often engages in continuous efforts to maintain contact with their caregiver, and often cling to them in new situations

    inhibited and show signs of fear
  44. Early Attachments - Bowlby and others
    early attachment experiences and reactions of the infant to parents, especially the mother, form "working models" for later adult relationships
  45. Motives
    internal states that arouse and direct behavior towards a specific object or goal that are based on NEEDS

    • often caused by a deficit or lack of something
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  46. Abraham Murray - Need
    a potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances

    associated with a specific intention or desire, a particular set of emotions, specific behavioral patterns, and a description with trait names
  47. The Big 3
    • Achievement
    • Power
    • Intimacy
  48. The Big 3 - Need for Achievement
    these people prefer activities that offer some, but not too much of a challenge

    enjoy tasks where they are personally responsible for the outcome

    prefer tasks where feedback on their performance is available
  49. The Big 3 - Need for Power
    these people are interested in controlling situations and controlling others

    do not deal well with frustration and conflict

    show strong stress responses, including high blood pressure
  50. The Big 3 - Need for Intimacy
    these people spend more time during the day thinking about relationships

    report more pleasant emotions when around people

    smile, laugh, make more eye contact

    start up conversations more frequently and write more letters
  51. Humanistic Psychology
    emphasis is on the role of choice and personal responsibility, and the human need for growth and realizing one's full potential

    human nature is positive and life-affirming
  52. Abraham Maslow - Self-Actualization
    the process of becoming more and more what one idiosyncratically is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming
  53. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
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  54. Carl Rogers
    (fully functioning person)
    focused on ways to foster and attain self-actualization

    fully functioning person - person who is en route toward self-actualization
  55. Carl Roger's Theory
    key to development of unconditional positive self-regard and moving toward self-actualization is the receipt of unconditional positive regard from parents and significant others

    many parents and significant others place conditions of worth on when one will receive positive regard-conditional positive regard
  56. Rogerian Client-Centered Psychotherapy Conditions
    must be an atmosphere of genuine acceptance of the client by the therapist

    therapist must express unconditional positive regard for the client

    empathic understanding - client must feel that the therapist understands him or her
Card Set:
2013-04-16 02:55:40
personality psychology

Review cards for psych test 2 - chps. 6, 7, 9, 10, 11
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