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What is heat?
The amount of thermal energy in an object because o its moving molecules.
What is temperature?
a measure of thermal energy or how fast molecules are moving in an object.
The more you heat something the faster the molecules move. This is what causes temperature to rise.
How are heat and temperature different?
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of each particle within an object WHILE heat is the total energy of the particles that make up an object.
What is absolute zero? What does it represent?
- When molecules stop moving
- -273 C
- -492 F
- 0 K
How cold is absolute zero in Kelvin? Celsius?
When considering hot and cold bodies, in which direction will the energy flow?
Heat air rises cold air sinks
What is conduction?
heat transferred by direct contact
What substance does conduction of heat transfer work best?
Metals and some solids.
What do you call things that are poor conductors.
- Insulators- materials that don't let heat through them well.
- Still air is a good insulator. Also rubber plastics and glass.
- Insulation trap air pockets.
What is convection?
- Transferring energy by moving fluids.
- When heated they expand, become less dense. They rise, and are replaced by cooler denser fluids.
In what substances does convection of heat transfer work best?
What is radiation?
as energy travels through electromagnetic waves in space
How does radiation transport energy?
What are some examples of transferring energy by radiation?
- The Suns heat moves towards earth through electromagnetic waves in space (through vacuum).
- The heat of a campfire warms campers by moving from the fire to the people through the space between them.
What are the different states of matter?
Solid, liquid, gas and plasma.
When going from a solid to a liquid to a gas, is energy absorbed or released?
What about from gas to liquid?
What is the term that from when we go from a liquid to a gas?
What is the term for going from gas to liquid?
What it the term for when we go directly from a solid to a gas?
- Dry ice
- Frozen water (best at low pressure)
Is it possible to go directly from a gas to a solid?
Most common example is in the formation of frost.
What is the difference between a physical and chemical property?
physical property describes the look of feel of a substance WHILE a chemical property describes the tendency of a substance to transform into a new substance.
What is the difference between a physical and chemical CHANGE
A physical change imposes a new set of conditions on the same material. (changes the looks)
- A chemical change forms a new material with its own unique set of physical properties.
- Both physical and chemical changes result in a change in physical appearance. (changes the insides to make it something different)
What are valence electrons?
Electrons in the outermost shell
- of an atom. These are the ones that can participate
- in chemical bonding.
What is an ion?
An atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons.
An atom that has lost or gained one or
What is a molecular ion?
- Typically formed by the loss
- or gain of a hydrogen ion, H+.
What is an ionic bond and how do they form?
- The electrical force of attraction
- between oppositely charged ions.
What is a covalent bond and how do they form?
The type of electrical attraction in which atoms are held together by their mutual attraction for shared electrons. There are two electrons within in one covalent.
An atom can have as many covalent bonds as it has unpaired electrons.
What is the relationship between valence electrons and the number of covalent bonds that a single atom can make?
an atom can make as many covalent bonds as it has unpaired electrons in the outter most valence shell.
What is a polar covalent bond and how do they form?
Electrons within a covalent bond are shared evenly when the tow atoms are the same
What is molecular polarity? How does it happen?
When 2 atoms pull away equal with equal force in opposite directions.
An example is water H20. The O's pull away from one another.
- The attraction between an ion and a dipole
- Example NaCl in water
The attraction between two dipoles.
Example: Cohesive forces within water
The attraction between a dipole and an induced dipole.
This interaction allows water to contain small amounts of dissolved oxygen.
A non polar material is soluble in a poor material by the wave of...
dipole-induced dipole attractions
This is a relatively weak force of attraction which explains why not much oxygen dissolves in the water. There is enough however to allow fish to live.
What is an acid?
- dissociate in water to increase the concentration of H+
- -Have many H+ ions
- - Sour taste
- - HCl is hydrochloric acid or stomach acid.
What is a base?
- combine with H+ ions when dissolved in water, thus decreasing H+ concentration.
- - Have many OH- (hydroxide) ions
- - Bitter taste
- -NaOH= sodium hydroxide or baking soda.
What is a buffer?
- -act as a reservoir for hydrogen ions, donating or removing them from solution as necessary
- -Offer protection from extreme pH levels
- - Commone ones are carbonates and bicarbonates
- -Produced naturally by organisms:
- Organisms can't tolerate much pH change
- Cells function best with a narrow pH range.
What is pH?
a figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale which 7 is neutral. Lower values are acidic while higher values are alkalinity.
What is the pH of pure water?
What are some everyday bases and acids we may encouter?
- Acids: Coke
- Bases: baking soda
- rigid outer shell
- crust and upper mantle ( 50 to 200 km thick)
- somewhat brittle,breakable
- cold (like Butter in the fridge)
- warmer, plastic layer under lithosphere
- mantle from 150 to 700 km
- squishy, plastic
- warm (like softened butter)
- Are plates that are created
- They separate
Convergent Plate Boundaries
- Plate recycled
- One dives under the other
Transform Plate Boundary
- Slides past one another
- The pacific pale slides past the North American Plate along the San Andreas Fault in California
- Plates ride over plume of hot mantle
- Important but NOT a not plate boundary
Mid- ocean ridge
The separation in the ground after the divergent boundary splits away.
Sticks up hig
- Is the youngest toward the middle of the oceans
- Becomes older toward the edges of continents
What is magnetic reversal and what does that tell us?
It flips back and forth over time. The polarity frozen inter rocks of the ocean floor gel us to determine when the ocean floor formed.
What is a passive continental margin, what are their characteristics, and what is an example?
A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental crust which is not an active plate margin.
What is an active continental margin, what are their characteristics and what is an example?
active continental margins typically have narrow continental shelves. In addition, active continental margins are near plate boundaries
What kinds of direct evidence do we have regarding Earth's composition?
- Rocks on Surface
- Volcanic Material
What kinds of indirect evidence do we have regarding EArth's composition?
- Magnetic Field (Iron Core)
- Gravity Field
- Seismic WAves
What is isostasy?
term used in geology to refer to the state of gravitationalequilibrium between the earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere such that the tectonic plates "float" at an elevation which depends on their thickness and density.
How are the oceanic and continental crusts different?
- Oceanic crust is younger then continental
- Continental crusts sticks up high
What is continental drift and how is related to plate tectonics?
Large supercontinent (Pangea) existed and then split into pieces.
If you look at the plates they fit together like a puzzle and that was once Pangea
What is Pangea?
The super-continent where all the plates were all one and all the counties were together.
What observation led to the theory of continental drift? What were it problems?
- 4 observations!!
- 1. Fit of the continents
- 2. Crust appears to "float" on the mantle
- 3. Continuation of geological features across oceans - Rocks -Glacial deposits -Mountain Ranges.
- 4. Distribution of fossils before and after break of Pangea
What is seafloor spreading?
- Proposed in the 60's
- Plates diverge and move in opposite directions
- Rising magma fills the gap
- New Plate material is created.
How did past flips in Earth's magnetic field end up providing proof of seafloor spreading?
Because ocean floor is constantly moving it creates new magnetic spots
What is meant by the plate tectonic "conveyor belt"?
Because old material gets pushed under into the mantle and becomes recycled
How does the age of the seafloor change as you move away from seafloor spreading center?
The further away you go from the center of the oceans (towards the continents ) the younger the land is.
What is the difference between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere?
Lithosphere is rigid and is on top of the asthenosphere
What drives the tectonic plates?
Plate tectonics are driven by convection currents.
How fast do tectonic plates move?
Which plate boundaries have volcanoes?
divergent, hotspots and convergent
Which plate boundaries have EARTHQUAKES?
Which plate boundaries have volcanoes and earthquakes?
What is the relationship between earthquake location and plate tectonics?
They are along the plate boundaries