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Birth to 1 1/2 years
Mouth is the center of pleasure. (major source of gratification and exploration) Security is primary need. Major conflict : weaning
Feeding produces pleasure and sense of comfort and safety. Feeding should be pleasurable and provided when required.
1 1/2 years to 3 years
Anus and bladder are the sources of pleasure. (Sensual satisfaction, self-control) Major conflict : Toilet training
Controlling and expelling feces provide pleasure and sense on control. Toilet training should be a pleasurable experience
4 to 6 years
The child genitals are the center of pleasure. Masturbation offers pleasure. Other activities can include fantasy, experimentation with peers, and questioning of adults about sexual topics. Major conflict : the Oedipus or Electra complex, which resolves when the child identifies with parent of same sex (The Oedipus Refers to the male child attraction to mother and hostile to father.The Electra complex refers to the females attraction to the father and hatred toward the mother)
The child identifies with the parent of the opposite sex and later takes on a love relationship outside the family. encourage identity
6 years to puberty
energy is directed to physical and intellectual activities. Sexual impulses tend to be repressed. Develop relationship between peers of the same sex.
Encourage child with physical and intellectual pursuits. Encourage sports and other activities with same-sex peers
Puberty and after
Energy is directed toward full sexual maturity and function and development of skills needed to cope with the environment
Encourage separation from parents, achieving of independence, and decision making.