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Plamsa and interstitial fluids are composed of
Na, Cl, and HCO3
Cytoplasm (cystol) is composed of
K, Mg, HPO4/H2PO4
Functions of the excretory system
- 1.remove metabolic wastes and xenobiotics
- 2.maintain water and electrolyte balance
- 3.make hormones
- 4.regulate pH
What does the loop of henle use to facilitate diffusion? What's secreted at which end?
Counter current exchange
- ascending: Na
- descending: H2O
Why is urea reabsorbed from the collecting duct?
To help maintain the increased medullary osmolarity in the spaces between the loop of henle of the nephron
Name the methods of which water is lost.
- 1. urine
- 2. feces
- 3. insensible loss
- 4. sweat
Name the methods of which water is gained.
- 1. liquid intake
- 2. solid intake
- 3. metabolism
What is reabsorbed and what is secreted by in the nephron?
reabsorbed: glucose, urea, Na, water, amino acids.
secreted: H and K
How much water is reabsorbed from the ultrafiltrate?
Timmy hasn't eaten any Na for the past week, assuming he's still alive, what kind of physiological response is his doing to compensate for this lack of Na?
His body is producing aldosterone thus stimulating Na active transport pumps and increasing Na absorption from the ultrafiltrate.
Atrial natriuretic hormone is produced from where and does what?
heart, and inhibits Na reabsorption and thus increases Na and water excretion
What roles do the gut, kidney, and bone play in Ca levels?
gut: absorbs Ca
bone: stores Ca
kidney: excretes Ca
Which cells in the bone play a role in the storing or dissolving of bone for Ca?
Osteoblast: store Ca into the bone (formation)
Osteoclast: dissolve bone into Ca and PO4
Which hormones play a role in the [Ca] in the plasma?
calitonin: inhibits osteoclasts
PTH: stimulate osteoclast
What is the importance of Vit D3 for bone formation?
It mineralizes the bone making it hard and strong.
Hypercalcemia, eucalcemia, hypocalcemia, how do you deal with each?
hyper: increase calitonin levels decrease plasma Ca levels
eu: no change needed
hypo: increase PTH levels and increase plasma Ca levels