food, water, air borne dieeases

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food, water, air borne dieeases
2013-04-16 19:27:16
BI 301

Food, Air and Waterborne cards
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  1. S&S = Stiff neck, pounding HA.  Red patches on skin. Resp tract infection x several days.  Spinal fluid reveals Gram neg diplococci
  2. S&S = Acid fast bacilli appear in sputum.  Deep cough w/blood occasionally.  Mantoux test pos. Pt lives in ghetto & is malnourished.
  3. S&S = Pt owns pet shop specializing in canaries.  HA & dry cough resembling influenza.  Tetracycline appears to reduce symptoms.
  4. S&S = Throat red, raw & has beefy look.  Swollen lymph nodes. High fever, Pink red blush appearing on chest & neck.  Blood samples reveal bacterial cell in a chain.
    Scarlet Fever
  5. Membranous accumulations in throat, labored breathing; high fever, Gram pos bacilli w/metachromatic granules are isolated fr throat washings
  6. S&S = Young child w/rapid fire stacato coughs all in 1 breath.  Stridor on inspiration; child exhausted fr coughing and fever
  7. S&S = Pt recently visited dairy farm where raw milk was tasted.  Pt now exhibiting flu-like symptoms w/fever & dry cough.  Bacterial cells not found in tissue.
  8. S&S = Pt has high fever during the day & lower at night w/chills. Gram neg sm rods in the blood. Pt drinks raw milk
  9. S&S = Rice water stool, eyes gray, skin is wrinkled & cold, muscle cramps in extremities, losing a liter of water an hr and pt comatose.  Lab results reveal Gram neg curved rods
  10. S&S = Pt exhibiting slurred speech, diff swallowing & chewing, labored breathing, flaccid paralysis.  Labs unremarkable.  Pt cans veggies fr garden
  11. S&S = Pt c/o piercing pain fr intestine, high fever and delirium.  Exam reveals rose colored blotchy skin spots on abd.  Labs show Gram neg rods
    Typhoid fever
  12. S&S = Pt c/o abd cramps, NVD.  Neg fever.  Pt had warm coleslaw w/dinner 6 hrs ago
    Staphylococcal food poisoning
  13. Meningococcal meningitis involves what organs?
    CSF and meninges
  14. Tuberculosis involves what organs?
  15. Primary atypical pneumonia involves which organs.
  16. ____ is a bacterial genus that may be involved in Travelers Diarrhea or hemolytic uremic syndrome.
    • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
  17. ____ is used for treating established cases of Botulism.
  18. ___ is the region of the body in which species of Campylobacter colonize.
    The small or large intestine
  19. ____ is the approx incubation for staphylococcal food poisoning.
    1-6 hrs
  20. ___ is the species of Bacillus organisms associated with food borne disease.
  21. ____ results from a child's ingestion of food containing endospores.
  22. ___ is the disease other than clostridial food poisoning that Clostridium perfringens causes.
    Gas gangrene
  23. What distinguishes clostridial food poisoning from staphylococcal food poisoning?
    Incubation time for clostridial is 8-24 hrs where as for staph it is 1-6 hrs
  24. ____ is the antibiotic generally prescribed for typhoid fever.
  25. ____ is the bacterium species that causes cholera.
    Vibrio cholerae
  26. ____ is the name for bloody diarrhea due to E. coli 0157:H7.
    Acute hemorrhagic diarrhea
  27. ____ is an important cause for infantile diarrhea.
    Enteropathogenic E. coli
  28. ____ is the highly resistant structure that may contaminate foods and lead to B. cereus food poisoning
  29. ___ is the type of white blood cell infected by Listeria.
    A monocyte
  30. ____ is the grp of organic substances in food that encourage the growth of Clostridium perfringens.
  31. ____ is a laboratory growth medium that will support the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Mannitol salt agar
  32. ___ is the organic substance found in newer typhoid fever vaccines.
    • Ty21a vaccine
    • Composed of a weakened strain of S. typhi
  33. ____ is the approx incubation period for salmonellosis.
    6-48 hrs
  34. ____ is an alternate name for diseases due to Shingella species.
  35. T or F; Botulism can be avoided by chilling foods thoroughly before consuming them.
    False - by heating them to 90⁰C for 10 mins
  36. T or F; Salmonellosis can properly be called Salmonella food poisoning, as a toxin is ingested in foods.
  37. T or F; Cases of cholera can be caused by Vibrio cholerae transmitted by contaminated food or water.
  38. T or F; Shigellosis is primarily a disease of the nervous system as the toxin affects the release of acetylcholine.
    False - It is a disease that invades the epithelial cells of the intestine
  39. T or F; Certain individuals recovering fr typhoid fever can be carriers and continue to shed typhoid bacilli for a year or more.
  40. T or F; The disease formerly known as ptomaine poisoning is now correctly known as clostridial food poisoning.
    False - Ptomaines were alkaloids found in dead or decaying animals and vegitables
  41. T or F; A number of organisms can cause travelers diarrhea but several studies point to Aeromonas hydrophila as the principle agent.
    False - E. coli is principle
  42. T or F; Brucellosis is a occupational hazard of farmers, vets, dairy plant workers and others who deal w/lg animals,
  43. T or F; Salmonella typhi displays high resistance to acid, which is why it can survive passage thru the stomach.
  44. T or F; The incubation period for staphylococcal food poisoning is considerably greater than that for salmonellosis.
    False - Incubation for salmonellosis is 6-48 hrs where as it is only 1-6hrs for staphyloccocal
  45. T or F; The major focus of brucellosis in humans is the blood rich organs such as the spleen or lymph nodes.
    False - Brucellosis is more systemic but focussing on muscles
  46. T or F; It is not possible to be immunized against cholera.
    False - It is possible but only for short periods of time
  47. T or F; Three forms of listeriosis are disease of the meninges, disease of the blood and disease of the uterus.
  48. T or F; The diarrhea that accompanies brucellosis is generally more severe than the accompanying cholera.
    False - The diarrhea assoc with is much more severe and dehydrating
  49. T or F; Eggs can be a source of salmonellosis because Salmonella serotypes infect chickens & turkeys.
  50. T or F; Tx of those suffering from botulism involves administering lg doses of antitoxins.
  51. T or F; Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in the US.
    False - This is true in Japan and in parts of the world where seafood is a primary food source
  52. T or F; Many of the bacterial species that cause foodborne and waterborne illnesses in humans are Gram neg rods.
    False - Bacterial species are both Gram pos and neg
  53. The annual number of cases of botulism is relatively (high,low) and those affected should be administered doses of (antibiotics, antitoxins).
    • low
    • Antitoxins
  54. Staphylococcal food poisoning ranks as the (2nd, 7th) most reported of all (foodborne, waterborne) illnesses.
    • 2nd
    • Foodborne
  55. The (aerobic, anaerobic) Gram pos (rod, coccus) known as Clostridium perfringens contaminates (carbohydrate, protein)-rich foods such as (potato, beans) and causes food poisoning.
    • Anaerobic 
    • Rod
    • Protein
    • Beans
  56. Individuals recovering from typhoid fever may become (reservoirs,carriers) when the bacilli continue to multiply and infect the (gall bladder,pancreas).
    • Carriers
    • Gallbladder
  57. Species of Campylobactor are Gram neg (motile,nonmotile) rods that are (curved,straight) and colonize (chickens,pigs).
    • Motile
    • Curved
    • Chickens
  58. About (100, 5,000) cases of brucellosis occur annually, primarily in ppl who work with (industrial machinery, farm animals).
    • 100
    • Farm animals
  59. Both infantile and (clostridial, traveler's) diarrhea may be due to Escherichia coli, a gram-(pos, neg) rod.
    • Travelers
    • Neg
  60. Vibrio cholerae, the agent of (cholera, shigellosis), is extremely susceptible to (air, stomach acid) and therefore must be ingested in lg numbers to est infection.
    • Cholera
    • Stomach acid
  61. Ulceration during cases of salmonellosis is (high, mild) in comparison to typhoid fever and (dehydration, pneumonia) may occur in some pts.
    • Mild
    • Dehydration
  62. Identification of shigellosis can be aided by isolation of Shigella from (urine samples, stool samples), and recovery can be hastened by (fluid replacement, oxygen administration).
    • Stool samples
    • Fluid replacement
  63. An effective tx for shigellosis, cholera and traveler's diarrhea is (penicillin, oral rehydration)
    Oral rehydration
  64. One of the first European investigators to describe (Shigella, Salmonella) was (Flexner, Pasteur).
    • Shigella
    • Flexner
  65. The spore forming aerobic organism (Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens) can cause food poisoning in rice products.
    Bacillus cereus
  66. Salmonellosis cases often are related to (eggs, meat products) because the (rods, cocci) of this disease multiply in these foods.
    • Eggs
    • Rods
  67. Incubation periods for staphylococcal disease tend to be (6 hrs, 10 days) because the disease is related to (bacterial growth, a toxin) produced in (food, human intestine).
    • 6 hrs
    • a toxin
    • Human intestine
  68. Pharyngitis is better known as a ___ ___.
    Sore throat
  69. S. pyogenes  is carried on the skin and in the ___ and is the most common cause of ___
    • Throat
    • Tonsillitis
  70. ___ ___ is a disease arising in about 10% of children with streptococcal pharyngitis.
    Scarlet fever
  71. Some strains of S. pyogenes carry toxin-encoding prophages coding for ___ ___ that causes a pink red rash on the neck, chest and soft skin areas of the arm.
    Erythrogenic exotoxins
  72. A serious complication of streptococcal pharyngitis that causes inflammation in response to a throat infection is ___ ___.
    Rheumatic fever
  73. Diptheria is an infection of the URT that is caused by ___ ___ an aerobic, club shaped Gram-(pos, neg) rod.
    • Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    • pos
  74. Diptheria cells remain in clumps after multiplying and form a picket fence like arrangement called what?
    Palisade arrangement
  75. The exotoxin of C. diphtheriae inhibits the ___ process by ____ resulting in accumulation of dead tissue, mucus, WBCs & fibrous material called pseudomembrane on the tonsils or pharynx.
    • Translation
    • RIbosomes
  76. Pertussis is caused by the organism ___ ___, a small, aerobic, Gram-(pos, neg) rod spread by ___ ___.
    • Bordetella pertussis
    • neg
    • Resp droplets
  77. What are the 2 stages of pertussis and how are they characterized?
    • Catarrhal - malaise, low grade fever, cough
    • Paroxysmal - disintegrating cells & mucus accumulate in airways, labored breathing, paroxysms
  78. Predict the course of meningococcal meningitis.
    • Attachment to nasopharyngeal mucosa by pili
    • Capsule forms which there are almost 14 serogroups
    • Respiratory illness develops
  79. How are most meningococcal infections treated? 
    Most resolve themselves as little more than a resp infection
  80. What makes Haemophilus meningitis different fr meningococcal meningitis?
    • There is a vaccine for Haemophilus (DTap)
    • Most N. meningitis cases are in 2-18y/o where as Haemophilus is between 2mos and 5yrs
  81. What are some facts about meningococcal meningitis?
    • Encapsulated, aerobic, Gram-neg, diplococcus
    • Serogroup B causes most disease & infant mortality
    • Fragile organism
    • Trans thru lg resp droplets
    • Attaches to nasopharyngeal mucosa w/pili
    • Prevalent in ppl in close proximity
  82. Meningococcal meningitis sometimes leads to formation of lesions in adrenal glands with accompanying hormone imbalances in a condition called ___-___ syndrome.
  83. TB begins with inhalation of ___ establishing ___ and exhibiting ___, ___, ___.
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • A primary infection
    • + tuberculin reaction
    • - X-ray
    • - Sputum
  84. Of those with a primary TB infection, 10% will progress to ___ TB & 90% will progress to a ___ TB infection.
    • Primary active
    • Latent
  85. Those with a latent TB infection will exhibit what S&S and 90% of those will have no TB disease rendering them ___ ___.
    • + Tuberculine
    • -/+ X-ray
    • - Sputum
  86. 10% of those w/a latent TB infection will progress to ___ ___ TB exhibiting what S&S?
    • Secondary active
    • + Tuberculin reaction
    • + X-Ray
    • + Sputum
  87. 10% of those w/a primary TB infection will progress to ___ ___ TB disease w/the S&S of what?
    • Primary active 
    • + Tuberculin reaction
    • + X-ray 
    • + Sputum
  88. If left untreated 50% of those with primary active TB disease ___ within ___ yrs.
    • Die 
    • 2
  89. What happens to those w/primary or secondary TB disease who are treated after many years?
    Most are cured
  90. The term pneumonia refers to a microbial disease of the ___ and ___ and is characterized by what?
    • Bronchial tubes and lungs
    • Inflammation or build up of fluid in alveoli
  91. Pneumococcal pneumonia is characterized by what 4 S&S?
    • High fever 
    • Sharp, chest pain
    • Diff breathing
    • Rust colored sputum
  92. "Typical" pneumonias are characterized by what S&S?
    • Chills
    • High fever
    • Sweating
    • SOB
    • CP
    • Greenish or yellow sputum
  93. "Atypical" pneumonia is characterized by what S&S?
    • HA 
    • Fever
    • Dry hacking cough
  94. Pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by ___ ___.
    Staphylococcus pneumoniae
  95. Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella pneumoniae are all causes of ___ ___.
    "Typical" pneumonia
  96. "Atypical" pneumonia is caused by what 2 bacteria?
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • Legionella pneumophila
  97. What distinguishes "atypical" pneumonia transmission fr "typical" and pneumococcal pneumonia?
    They are all spread via resp droplets however "atypical" pneumonia can also be spread via water sys, whirlpool spas or AC sys.  
  98. Describe how Legionnaires disease is spread.
    The bacillus exists where water collects and becomes airborne in wind gusts and breezes
  99. Several factors that could determine the etiology of a disease include. . . .
    • S&S 
    • Causative agents 
    • Areas of the body effected 
    • Extent of infection (local or systemic)
  100. Ways that food and water can be contaminated include. . . 
    • During production, preparation, packaging or distribution
    • Healthy animal microbiota
    • Exposure to bacteria 
    • Fruit/veggies irrigated/washed w/contam water
    • Accident in public pool
    • Improperly treated sewage
  101. What are the S&S of botulism?
    • Blurred vision
    • Slurred speech
    • Diff swallowing/chewing
    • Labored breathing
    • Flaccid paralysis
    • Failure of diaphragm & rib muscles
  102. Botulism is a preformed ____ which cause a variety of S&S related to the CNS.  Name a few examples.
    • Neurotoxin
    • Failure of rib/diaphragm muscles
    • Blurred vision
    • Slurred speech
    • Diff chewing/swallowing
    • Cranial nerve effects in general
  103. Name several diseases other than food borne botulism that are related to Clostridium bitulinum.
    • Wound botulism
    • Infant botulism (most common in America)
  104. What disease is known as floppy baby syndrome and why is it called that?
    Infant botulism b/c the toxin produces lethargy and poor muscle tone
  105. Why are antibiotics ineffective against most strains of botulism?
    B/c it is an intoxication rather than an infection
  106. Describe the organism that causes Staphylococcal food poisoning.
    • Staphylococcal aureus a facultative anaerobe, Gram pos sphere. 
    • Found in protein rich, dairy, cream filled pastries, eggs, ham
    • Salt tolerant
    • Grown on Mannitol Salt agar
  107. What is the temp range for Staphylococcus aureus?
    8-45⁰C making in heat tolerant in addition to salt tolerant
  108. Name some characteristics of Clostridial food poisoning.
    • Protein rich foods
    • Spore forming
    • Endospores survive cooking process
    • Produce enterotoxin
  109. What are S&S of clostridial food poisoning?
    • Abd cramping
    • Watery diarrhea
  110. Several parts of the body that can be affected by typhoid fever include. . . .
    • Small intestine
    • Integumentary sys (hemorrhage) 
    • Eventually becomes systemic
  111. How is Typhoid Fever diagnosed?
    by any blood, bone marrow or stool cultures and with the Widal test
  112. What various foods can transmit salmonellosis?
    • Unpasteurized milk & poultry
    • Commonly chickens & turkeys
    • Raw produce
  113. How do foods become contaminated w/salmonellosis?
    When the normal bacterial species of the gut are absent
  114. What are the S&S of salmonellosis?
    • Fever
    • ND
    • Abd cramps
  115. Compare diarrhea to dysentery.
    Diarrhea is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day where as dysentery is an inflammatory disorder of the colon resulting in severe diarrhea w/blood & mucus in feces w/fever, abd pain caused by infection
  116. Compare shigellosis to salmonellosis.
    Salmonellosis involves fever, V/D, abd cramps where as shigellosis is all those plus the S&S of dysentery
  117. Describe bacterial organism that causes cholera.
    Vibrio cholerae is a motile, aerobic, Gram neg curved rod that releases cholera toxin causing unrelenting loss of fluid & electrolytes (rice water stools)
  118. What is the course of tx for Cholera?
    • Tetracycline
    • Fluid replacement
    • Electrolyte & glucose relacement
  119. Summarize infection caused by Campylobactor jejuni.
    • Caused by warm blooded animals such as chickens, turkeys, dairy cattle, unpasteurized dairy products
    • Cells colonize in sm or lg intestine 
    • S&S Diarrhea, fever
    • May lead to Guillain-Barre syndrome
  120. What are different infections that can be caused by Brucella species?
    Causes infections in lg ruminent animals such as cattle, swine, goats & sheep and dogs
  121. Describe Yersinia infections.
    • Caused by foods in contact w/infected domestic animals, raw or undercooked pork, contaminated water or milk
    • Primarily children
    • S&S diarrhea & severe abd pain
    • Lasts 1-3 wks
  122. Describe Bacillus infections.
    • 2-6 hr incubation
    • Meats or cream sauces = diarrhea
    • Starchy foods = vomiting
    • 2 day recovery w/o tx
  123. Describe an Aeromonas infection.
    • Fresh or brackish water
    • Causes gastroenteritis or wound infection
    • S&S acute diarrhea resembling shigellosis
    • resistant - penicillins cephalosporins & erythromycin
    • Tx w/ciproflaxin