endocrine.txt

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Author:
dewarsb
ID:
213856
Filename:
endocrine.txt
Updated:
2013-04-18 15:14:04
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dewarsb Boardreview endocrine
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Endocrine review
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  1. 4 causes of ketotic hypoglycemia
    • benign ketotic hypoglycemia
    • hormonal deficiencies
    • glycogen storage disease
    • abnormalities of gluconeogenisis
  2. 4 causes of nonketotic hypoglycemia
    • infant of diabetic mother
    • hyperinsulinism
    • fatt acid oxidation disorders
    • hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia
  3. peripheral precocious puberty
    cafe au lait spots with irregular borders
    bone lesions
    McCune Albright syndrome
  4. 9 causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
    • chronic disease
    • anorexia nervosa
    • exercise induced amenorrhea
    • isolated gonadotropin deficiency
    • hypopituitarism, septo optic dysplasia
    • Kallmann syndrome
    • CNS tumors
    • chemotherapy, CNS radiation
    • hypothyroidism
  5. 4 causes of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism
    • gonadal dysgenesis
    • primary ovarian failure, including Turner syndrome
    • primary testicular failure
    • Klinefelter syndrome
  6. hypertension, hypoglycemia,
    signs of masculinization in XX infants
    no salt wasting
    aldosterone and glucocorticoid deficiency
    11beta hydroxylase deficiency
  7. hypertension, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia
    XY infants with undermasculinized genitalia
    primary hypogonadism in XX infants
    no salt wasters
    glucocoritcoid and sex hormones are deficient
    17 hydroxylase deficiency
  8. hypotension, hypoglycemia
    XY infants with undermsculinized genitalia
    most salt waste leading to adrenal crisis
    mineralocortcoid, glucocorticoid, sex hormones are deficient
    3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
  9. hypotension, XY infants with undermasculinized genitalia
    salt waste leads to adrenal crisis
    mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid, sex hormones are deficient
    lipoid adrenal hyperplasia
  10. increased levels of 17-OHP, androstenedione, and sex hormones
    adrenal hyperplasia secondary to ACTH stimulation
    75% classic salt wasters-deficiency of aldosteroine and cortisol
    20% classic non salt wasters or simple virilizing-deficiency of cortisol only
    1-5% non classic with adrogen excess only
    21 hydroxylase deficiency
  11. target adult height for males
    (FH+MH +13cm)/2
  12. target adult height for females
    (FH+MH-13cm)/2
  13. 7 Causes of SIADH
    • head trauma
    • CNS infections
    • CNS tumors
    • surgery near the hypothalmus
    • drugs (lithium)
    • lung disease (TB)
    • severe hypothyroidism
  14. 4 causes of tall stature
    • Sotos syndrome (cerebral giantism)
    • Familial tall stature
    • Marfan syndrome
    • Klinefelter syndrome
  15. 6 causes of short stature
    • chromosomal--Turner's
    • syndromic--Russell-Silver
    • osteochondroplasias--achondroplasia
    • chronic disease--CHD, DM, CLD, RF, malabsorption
    • endocrinopathies--hypothyroidism, Cushing's, GH deficiency
    • vareants of normal--constitutional delay, familial short stature, idiopathic
  16. 5 causes of DI
    • midline brain abnormalities
    • surgical/accidental trauma
    • tumors--germinomas
    • infiltrative disease--histiocytosis, lymphocytic hypophysitis
    • gene mutations
  17. 6 causes of hypercalcemia
    • hypervitaminosis D
    • familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia FHH
    • prolonged immobilization
    • primary hyperparthyroidism
    • parathyroid adeenoma/hyperplasia
    • Williams syndrome
  18. 9 causes of hypocalcemia
    • antenatal maternal illness
    • perinatal asphyxia, RDS, sepsis
    • transient neonatal hypoparathyroidism
    • excessive phosphate intake from formula
    • structural parathyroid abnormality or mutations in gene for PTH
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • inadequate calcium intake
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • pseudohypoparathyroidism
  19. 5 risk factors for rickets
    • breast-feeding without vitamin D supplementation
    • prematurity/low birth weight
    • lack of sun exposure
    • darkly pigmented skin
    • anticonvulsant use
  20. mutation in MENIN
    pancreatic tumors
    pituitary adenoma
    parathyroid tumors
    MEN 1
  21. mutation in RET
    parathyroid tumors
    medullary thyroid carcinoma
    pheochromocytoma
    MEN 2A
  22. mutation in RET
    medullary thyroid carcinoma
    pheochromocytoma 50%
    marfanoid body habitus 80%
    multiple mucosal neuromata >95%
    MEN 2B

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