Medic 14 A&P Chapter 17

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Medic 14 A&P Chapter 17
2013-04-16 22:26:23
Medic 14

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  1. Vocab
  2. Anabole
    a building up;anabolism
  3. genesis
    an origin;thermogensis
  4. glykus
  5. katabole
    a throwing down;catabolism
  6. lipos
  7. lysis
  8. neo-
  9. therme
  10. vita
  11. Objective:
    Define metabolism and explain why cells need to synthesize new organic structures. (pp. 630-631
  12. Metabolism
    refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
  13. Cellular metabolism
    • Chemical reactions within cells
    • Provides energy needed to maintain homeostasis and preform essential functions
  14. All of the cell's metabolic operations rely on the ?
    Nutrient pool
  15. Nutrient pool
    Amino acids,lipids, and simple sugars that cross the cell membrane and join the other nutrients in the cytoplasm.
  16. Catabolism
    Breakdown of organic molecules
  17. Catabolism releases energy for the  synthesizing of
    ATP and other high energy compounds
  18. Initial steps of catabolism occur in the cytosol where
    enzymes break down large organic molecules into smaller fragments.
  19. Enzymes break carbohydrates into, triglyceriedes into, and proteins into.
    Short carbon chains, fatty acids and glycerol,  individual amino acids
  20. Very little ___ is formed from the enxymes catabolic processes
  21. Products of cytoplasmic enzymatic catabolism can be absorbed by and processed by the
  22. As mitochondrial enzymes break the covalent bonds of organic molecules they capture __% of energy and __ % is turned into heat
    • 40% energy
    • 60% heat
  23. The captured energy is used to convert ___ to ATP, and the rest escapes as heat that warms the interior of the cell and the surrounding tissues.
  24. More heat released the more the faster enzymatic reations occur
  25. Anabolism
    synthesis of new organic molecules that involves formation of new chemical bonds
  26. ATP produced by mitochondrial processes provide energy to support
    Anabolism and other cell funtions
  27. Cell functions supported by ATP
    • Ciliary or cell movement
    • contraction
    • active transport
    • cell division
    • Secretory processes
  28. Cells synthesize new organic components for 4 basic reasons
    • To perform structural maintenance and repairs
    • To support growth
    • To produce secretions
    • To build nutrient reserves
  29. Anabolic processes require more
    amino acids then lipids and few carbs
  30. Catabolic processes
    • Will break down carbs first, then 
    • lipids second choice
    • amino acids rarely used if carbs and lipids are available
  31. Chemical reactions in the cytoplasm take organic nutrients in the pool and break them into blank that the mitochondria can use.
    Small carbon chains
  32. The mitochondria are tenants in the cell that pay their rent in atp
  33. Chemical reactions in the mitochondria break down small carbon chains further and generate
    CO2,water and ATP
  34. Mitochondrial Activity involves two pathways
    • TCA cycle
    • electron transport system
  35. Objective:
    Describe the basic steps in glycolysis,TCA cycle, and the electron transport system.(pp.631-635)
  36. Reaction summary of Carbohydrate catabolism
    Glucose+ Oxygen-----> Carbon dioxide+ Water
  37. This breakdown occurs in series of small steps, several of thse relase enough energy to support
    Conversion of ADP to ATP
  38. During a complete catabolism of glucose, a typical cell obrains __ ATP molecules
  39. Mitochondrial activity responsible for ATP production is known as
    Aerobic Metabolism or Cellular respiration
  40. First steps of ATP production in the mitochondira takes place in the cytosol as a sequence called
  41. Glycolysis does not require oxygen and is said to be
  42. Subsequen reactions in mitochondria that consume oxygen are know as
  43. Glycolysis
    Breakdown of glucose to Pyruvic acid
  44. Glycolysis requires
    • Glucose molecules 
    • appropriate cytoplasmic enzymes
    • ATP and ADP
    • NAD(Nicotinamide adenina Dinucleotide)
  45. Coenzymes are
    Organic molecules,usually derived from vitamens, that must be present for an enzymatic reaction to occur.
  46. NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)
    Coenzyme that removes hydrogen atoms
  47. Steps of Glycolysis 1
    As soon as a glucose molecule enters the cytoplasm, a phosphate group is attached to the molecule.
  48. Steps of Glycolysis 2
    A second phosphate group is attached. Together Steps 1 and 2 cost the cell 2 ATP.
  49. Steps of Glycolysis 3
    The six-carbon chain is split into two three carbon molecules each of which then follows the rest of this pathway.
  50. Steps of Glycolysis 4
    Another phosphate group is attached to each molecule and NADH is generated from NAD
  51. Steps of Glycolysis 5
    The atoms in each three-carbon molecule are rearranged and each molecule produces 2 ATP.
  52. Pyruvic acid has a great deal of addtional energy stored in its chemical bonds.
    The cells ability to capture that energy depends on the ?
    Availability of oxygen
  53. If oxygen  supplies are adequate the mitochondria will
    Absorb the pyruvic acid molecules and break them down completely
  54. Hydrogen atoms of pyruvic acid are removed by
  55. Hydrogen atoms of pyruvic acid are source of most of the cells energy gain. The carbon and oxygen atoms are removed and released as
    Carbon dioxide
  56. Hydrogen on the periotic table of  elements
    1 proton 1 electron
  57. Pressure gradiant
    High to low
  58. Two membranes surround each mitochondria
    Outer membrane is permeable to pyruvic acid and carrier protein in the inner membrane transports pyruvic acid into the mitochondrial matrix
  59. Once in the matrix pryuvic acid participates in a sequence of enzymatic reactions called
    Tricarboxylic acid(TCA) cycle
  60. Function of the TCA cycle is to
    remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to conenzymes in the eletron transport system
  61. Withina complete reaction that involves pyruvic acid,NAD,and another coenzyme A or (coa) yields
    one carbon dioxide, one moleculde of NADH, and one molecule of acetylCoA.
  62. When the Acetyl group is transferred from Co-Enzyme A to a four carbon group
    A six carbon molecule called citric acid is produced
  63. When citric acid is produced CoA is released to
    bind with another acetyl group
  64. A complete revolution of the TCA cycle removes the
    two added carbon atoms and regenerates the four carbon chain
  65. The two removed carbon atoms generate two molecules of
  66. The hydrogen atoms are removed by
  67. One revolution of the TCA cycle forns a single molecule of
    • GTP (guanosine triphosphate) 
    • high energy compound readily converted to ATP
  68. Hydrogen atoms are removed by coenzymes NAD and FAD
    Flavine adenine dinucleotide
  69. The two coenzymes form NADH and FADH2 and transfer
    the hydrogen atoms to the electron transport system
  70. Electron transport system
    • is embedded in the inner mitochondrail membrane.
    • Consists of electron transport chain comprised of a series of protein pigment complexes called cytochromes
  71. Hydrogen atoms from the TCA do not enter tge ETS intact
    Only the electrons(carry the energy) enter the ETS
  72. The protons that accompany the electrons are released into the
    mitochondrial matrix
  73. The path of the lectrons from the NADH involve co enzyme
    Co enzyme FMN
  74. FADH2 moves directly to
    co enzyme Q
  75. Electrons from both from enzyme Q to the first Cytochrome then from
    Cytochrome to cytochrome loosing energy in a series of steps
  76. That energy is used to drive hydrogen Ion pumps that move hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space between
    The two mitochondrial membranes
  77. Then due to the large concentration gradient of hyydrogen ions across the inner membrane,so the hydrogen ions then diffuse back into the matrix though
    a membrane enzyme called ATP synthase
  78. the kinetic energy of the passing hydrogen ions is used to attach
    • a phosphate group to ADP, forming ATP
    • This process is called Chemiosmois
  79. Chemiosmois
    is a term that links the chemical formation of ATP with transport across a membrane
  80. at the end of the ETS
    oxygen atom accepts the electrons and combines with two hydrogen ions to form a molecule of water
  81. Gluconeogenesis
    synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate preursor moleules
  82. Fatty acids and many ammino acids cannot be used for gluconeogensis because their breakdown produces
  83. Objective:
    Discuss the pathways involved in lipid metabolism (pp.636-638)
  84. Lipolysis
    Catabolism of lipids
  85. Catabolism of fatty acids are known as