management 2.txt

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management 2.txt
2013-04-16 13:28:30


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  1. checklists
    type of evaluation form that describes the standard of performance, and the rater indicates whether the employee demonstrates that behavior by placing a check mark in that column
  2. coach
    to instruct or train, to develop potential
  3. critical-incident technique
    evaluation method in which specific instances of the employee carrying out responsibilities critical to the job are documented
  4. disciplinary procedures
    a set of steps or actions to be taken when an employees performance is consistently unacceptable
  5. due process
    in employment problems includes the employee being notified of the problem, being told what must be done to correct the problem, receiving help (coaching and/or teaching) in remedying the problem, and being given time for this to occur
  6. employee performance evaluation
    another term used for performance evaluation a formal evaluation process for employees
  7. field review
    evaluation method that allows comparison of the ratings of several supervisors for the same employee to be reviewed
  8. interview
    typically, a meeting of people face to face during which each learns about the other, or a time during which the evaluator meets with the employee to discuss the evaluation
  9. job descriptions
    written statements that describe the duties and functions of the various jobs within the organization
  10. mentoring
    assisting a selected individual to prepare for advancement and great opportunities, support offered to those with promise and potential
  11. narrative or essay technique
    evaluation in which the evaluation writes a paragraph or more (usually more) outlining an employees strengths, weaknesses (or areas for improvement), and potential
  12. negative feedback
    information provided to an individual about performance that does not meet the standard
  13. peer evaluation
    staff nurses are asked to evaluate other staff nurse as contribution to their growth and development in nursing
  14. performance appraisal
    formal evaluation process for employees
  15. performance standards
    criteria for action to be taken, usually found in writing
  16. positive feedback
    information provided to an individual about performance that meets or exceeds the standard
  17. progressive discipline
    series of steps or actions to be taken with an employee when that employees work consistently fails to meet expectations
  18. rater bias
    tendency to make judgments based on factors other than the official standards of performance
  19. rating scale
    evaluation tool that consists of a set of behaviors or characteristics along with a method to indicate the degree to which the person being evaluated demonstrates each behavior
  20. self-evaluation
    examining oneself and determining to what extent one meets the standards one has set
  21. standards of care
    authoritative statements that describe a common or acceptable level of client care
  22. standards of nursing practice
    expected behaviors of the RN that can be used as a basis for measuring performance
  23. supervisor
    one responsible for overseeing and directing the activities of others
  24. accommodating
    a strategy for dealing with conflict in which the individual gives in to the wishes of another to preserve harmony or build up social credits
  25. agency shop
    • condition in collective bargaining in which all employees are required to pay dues for membership
    • if b/c of religious or philosophical beliefs, employees are unwilling to pay dues to the bargaining group, provisions may be made to pay the same sum to a nonprofit group
  26. avoiding
    approach to dealing with conflict in which the individual chooses no to address the issue at hand
  27. collaborating
    approach to conflict in which the individuals involved in the conflict work toward common goals
  28. collective bargaining
    process of negotiation between organized workers and their employer for reaching an agreement on wages, fringe benefits, hours, working conditions, and the like
  29. competing
    approach to conflict in which the individual works for his or her particular desired solution exclusively
  30. compromise
    approach to conflict that in involves give and take on the part of all persons involved
  31. conflict
    situation that occurs when people with different values, interests, goals, or needs view things from a different perspective
  32. consensus
    in decision making, an agreement among all participants to accept the proposed solution
  33. dominance power
    control, authority, or influence over others
  34. forcing
    action taken during a conflict that involves working for ones particular desired solution exclusively
  35. grievance process
    steps or process that spells out an orderly method to be used in mediating the grievance between parties
  36. integrative decision making
    approach to decision making or conflict resolution that involves problem solving and collaboration among these involved
  37. interest-based bargaining (IBB)
    bargaining process in which administration and employees work jointly to problem solve strategies to meet each sides interest rather than taking solid positions on a particular side of the issue
  38. intrapersonal conflict
    occurs within an individual in situations in which he or she must choose between two alternatives
  39. lose-lose
    outcome of conflict in which neither party wins or achieves the desired outcome
  40. mediation
    process of resolving differences through having a third party as a go-between for others
  41. mediator
    person who helps the involved parties to negotiate toward a solution
  42. negotiate
    to be involved in the process of negotiation i.e. reaching an agreement through conferring, bargaining, or discussing the issues in which both parties give something both parties gain
  43. problem solving
    method of conflict resolution in which the individuals involved work toward common goals (collaborative approach)
  44. role ambiguity
    occurs when employees do not know what to do, how to do it, or what the outcomes must be
  45. role conflict
    occurs when tow or more individuals in different positions within the organization believe that certain actions or responsibilities belong exclusively to them
  46. smoothing
    approach to dealing with conflict in which the individual tries to eliminate anger and expressions of difference without addressing the issue itself
  47. win-lose
    outcome of conflict in which one of the parties wins (dominates) and the other loses (submits)
  48. win-win
    outcome of conflict in which both parties win
  49. withdrawing
    strategy for dealing with conflict in which the individual retreats from the situation or ignores it
  50. adversarial model (legalistic model)
    with this model for change, the advocate acts as an adversary to other health care professionals who do not share the advocates concern with all focus on the rights of the client without concern for others involved
  51. advocacy
    helping clients to be autonomous and informed decision makers and to accomplish their own goals and objectives
  52. broker model (responsible model)
    model that uses negotiation, compromise, and persuasion to bring about change, involves interaction with other persons associated with the situation as well as the client
  53. change agent (champion)
    person who seeks to cause or create change
  54. change fatigue
    process that occurs par way to the goal of the change when individuals begin feeling overwhelmed by the expectations and begin to lose their enthusiasm for the change
  55. change theory
    theory explaining change, its process and responses
  56. coercion
    restrain or constrain others by threats or force
  57. constraints on advocacy
    factors that tend to restrict and individual from successfully acting as an advocate
  58. co-optation
    enlisting key people from the opposition onto your side by giving them desirable roles in the process and thereby ensuring their commitment
  59. driving forces
    forces that call for change
  60. empirical-rational strategy
    approach to change that says change will be accepted by a person, group, or organization when it is seen as desirable and is aligned with the interest of those affected
  61. environmental-adaptive strategy
    create change by changing the organization and environment first and then moving people into cooperation
  62. external forces
    factors encouraging change that originate outside the person or organization
  63. force-field analysis
    theory of change developed by Lewin, which describes the forces that push toward changed balanced against the forces that restrain change
  64. internal forces
    factors encouraging change that comes from within the organization or person
  65. mediation
    process of resolving differences through having a third party as a go between for others
  66. movement stage
    second stage in the change process identified by Lewin in which the change agent identifies, plans, and implements appropriate strategies to bring about the change
  67. negotiation
    reaching an agreement through conferring, bargaining, or discussing the issues in which both parties give something and both parties gain
  68. normative-reeducative strategy
    approach to change that maintains that change will take place only after changes in attitudes, values, skills, and significant relationships have occurred
  69. ombudsman
    an individual who serves as a representative or advocate for clients, especially when there are complaints against an agency or organization
  70. paternalism
    restricting of an individuals liberty by making decisions for the person, usually involves withholding information and is justified because the decision maker knows what is best for the person
  71. power-coercive strategy
    approach to change that is employed when the leader orders change and those with less power comply
  72. reactive change
    change that occurs in response to some event as it arises
  73. refreezing stage
    final stage of change identified by Lewin in which changes that have been made are integrated and stabilized
  74. resistance
    force that retards, hinders, or opposes motion or change, or the act of opposing or withstanding a concept or change
  75. responsible model
    approach to advocacy that uses negotiation, compromise, and persuasion and involves interaction with other person associated with the situation
  76. restraining forces
    forces that are opposed to change
  77. stakeholders
    those affected by a change or action; the client system
  78. transitions
    change of attitudes and beliefs within people
  79. unfreezing stage
    first stage of change identified by Lewin in which the change agent loosens or unfreezes the factors or forces that are maintaing the status quo
  80. control group
    in a research study, the group that does not receive any treatment or intervention
  81. dependent variables
    that which changes as a result of the independent variable
  82. evidence-based practice (EBP)
    process of applying to patient care approaches to that care that have been demonstrated as effective through research
  83. health information technology (HIT)
    focuses on the use of information technology in the health care field
  84. hypothesis
    statement of a relationship between variables that the research is designed to test
  85. independent variables
    that which changes by itself or is made to change by the researcher
  86. information technology (IT)
    use of computerized systems to manage all the different types of information resources available
  87. internet service provider (ISP)
    company that provides a link from individual computers into the internet system
  88. level of significance
    probability at which the changes in the dependent variable would be identified as being due to the action of the independent variable rather than chance
  89. listserv
    a type of group discussion conducted by e-mail
  90. MeSH
    medical subject heading used for subject category indexing by the National Library of Medicine
  91. metaanalysis
    combining through statistical techniques the results of several different research studies to determine the overall findings of the studies collectively
  92. newsgroup
    type of internet group discussion in which each newsgroup is focused on a single topic
  93. nursing informatics
    use of technology to retrieve and manage information relevant to nursing practice
  94. participant
    in a research study, each member of the sample, also termed a subject
  95. peer reviewed
    something that has been reviewed and evaluated by a group of experts in the field
  96. population
    entire group of people in whom a phenomenon is of interest
  97. probability
    statistical likelihood of an event occurring
  98. qualitative research
    study designed to look at phenomena in their own environment providing a comprehensive and contextual understanding
  99. quantitative research
    type of research that emphasizes experimentation and statistical analysis
  100. reliability
    degree of consistency or dependability with which an assessment tool measures something
  101. research
    systematic approach to the study of a phenomenon
  102. sample
    portion of the population chosen for study
  103. subject headings
    categories used for indexing
  104. validity
    degree to which an assessment tool actually measures what it is supposed to measure
  105. certification
    written statement or specified process attesting to the accomplishment of certain goals or standards
  106. competence
    application of knowledge and the interpersonal, decision-making, and psychomotor skills expected for the practice role, within the context of public health, safety, and welfare
  107. cultural competence
    demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the clients culture; accepting and respecting cultural differences
  108. cultural desire
    nurses motivation to want to engage in the process of becoming culturally aware, knowledgeable, and skillful, and seeking cultural awareness
  109. culturally appropriate
    patient care that takes into consideration all aspects of cultural differences
  110. decision-making competence
    ability to make good decisions
  111. interpersonal competence
    refers to having the ability to relate effectively with coworkers, clients, family members, and members of the community
  112. linguistically appropriate
    services that are provided in ways that meet the language needs of the client and family, includes translation services if needed, signs in various languages, use of language seen as respectful by the client
  113. psychomotor (technical) competence
    those abilities that are related to doing or performing a skill
  114. reflective practice
    process of turning thoughtful practice into a potential learning situation or carefully reviewing your nursing actions with the goal of becoming more competent
  115. technical competence
    ability to carry out psychomotor skills effectively, safely, and efficiently
  116. accreditation
    an acknowledgement given to a school or organization to certify that it has met a certain set of standards
  117. advisory groups
    groups composed of individuals with certain expertise who come together to offer advice to an organization or institution
  118. certification
    written statement or specified process attesting to the accomplishment of certain goals or standards
  119. classification systems
    in nursing, a term applied to nursing language that communicates information and guides data collection about nursing activities
  120. competencies
    demonstrated abilities or skills
  121. differentiated nursing practice
    practice of structuring nursing roles on the basis of education, experience, and competence
  122. entry into practice
    point at which one enters a career after completing the education preparation for that particular discipline
  123. malpractice
    negligence on the part of a professional in the performance of his or her job; may be inappropriate actions taken or failure to take appropriate actions
  124. NANDA
    North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, one of the classification systems in nursing
  125. NIC
    Nursing Implementation Classifications, one of the nursing classification systems
  126. NOC
    Nursing Outcomes Classifications, one of the nursing classification systems
  127. nursing nomenclature
    another term for nursing language usually found in nursing classifications
  128. Omaha System
    classification of nursing focused on community nursing
  129. scope of practice
    activities, procedures, and treatments that a licensed individual may do as specified by the licensing act governing that profession
  130. taxonomy
    another term for classification system