EDKP 292

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Mafanta
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213897
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EDKP 292
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2013-04-17 13:58:30
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Nutrition
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yay nutrition
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  1. Fat soluble vitamins
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K
  2. Water soluble
    • B vitamins:
    • Thiamin (B1) 
    • Riboflavin (B2)
    • Niacin (B3)
    • Folate
    • Vitamin B12
    • Vitamin B6
    • Biotin
    • Pantohenic acid 

    Vitamin C
  3. Fat soluble trajectory
    • 1. absorbed in lymph
    • 2. travel blood with protein carriers
    • 3. stored in liver or other lipids in fat tissues 
    • 4. can build up toxic concentrations
  4. Water Soluble vitamins trajectory
    • 1. Absorbed directly in bloodstream 
    • 2. travel blood freely
    • 3. Most are not stored in tisses and excreted in urine 
    • 4. Low risk of immediate toxicity
  5. Fat soluble vitamin require...... for absorption
    bile
  6. Vitamin A
    3 forms: 

    Retinol - stored in the liver 

    CONVERTED TO retinal and retinoic acid
  7. Jack of all trades vitamin?
    Vitamin A
  8. Role of Vitamin A
    • Vison
    • maintenance of skin and body lining 
    • Immune defences 
    • growth of bones and body 
    • regulation of gene expression
  9. Deficiency of Vitamin A
    • Night blindness 
    • Keratization (rough skin)
    • Xerophthalmia
  10. Vitamin A toxicity
    • Loss appetite
    • Blurred vision 
    • Growth failure in children 
    • Headache
    • itching of skin 
    • irritability
  11. DRI vitamin A
    • Men: 900 ug/day 
    • Women: 700ug/ day 

    UL: 3000ug/day
  12. Vitamin A precursor
    Beta- carotene .. converts to vitamin once absorbed inside intestinal cell
  13. How is vitamin activity for vitamin A precursor is measured
    Retinol Activity equivalents
  14. Excessive amount of beta - carotene
    does not cause toxicity or vitamin A, but discolours skin
  15. Vitamin A and Physical Performance
    Does not effect performance per say...
  16. Vitamin D Role in Body
    • functions as a hormone
    • regulation of blood calcium and phosphorus levels
  17. Food source of Vitamin D
    • milk ( fortified) 
    • margarine + butter 
    • margarine and soy beverage 

    sunlight promotes the synthesis in skin
  18. DRI of vitamin D
    • 15 ug/day (9-70yr)
    • 20ug/ day (70+)

    UL : 100ug/ day
  19. Deficiency of vitamin D
    • Rickets in children 
    • Osteomalacia
  20. Toxicity of Vit. D
    Calcification of soft tissues
  21. Vitamin E
    Tocopherols
  22. Role of vitamin E
    • Antioxidants in body lipids 
    • part of cell membrane 
    • free radical
  23. Deficiency Vitamin E
    • anemia in newborns that did not get vitamin E from their mothers 
    • Adults:
    • loss of muscle coordination and reflexes
    • impaired movement, vision and speech
  24. Cause of deficiency in fat soluble vitamins
    • low fat diet 
    • problem in liver (no bile production)
    • disease with mal absorption of fat
  25. DRI Vitamin E
    15mg/days

    UL: 1000mg/day 

    no toxicity from food but yes maybe from supplements
  26. Vitamin E and exercise
    No proven correlation
  27. Vitamin K function
    • Blood clotting 
    • synthesis of normal form of bone protein that bind minerals to bones
  28. Source of vitamin K
    • K1 - green vegetables
    • k2- synthesis in intestinal bacteria 
    • body can also change Menadione to K1
  29. DRI vitamin K
    • DRI
    • Men: 120 ug/day 
    • women: 90 ug/day 

    deficiency is rare because synthesis in intestines
  30. deficiency in Vitamin K
    most common in newborns which they intestinal flora has not been established

    or low bile production
  31. Vitamin K
    Rare in adults (no UL)

    • red blood cell breakage 
    • color of skin becomes yellow 
    • liver releases bilirubin into blood...leads to jaundice
  32. Water soluble vitamins
    Can be leached out of foods when cooked and washed

    easily absorbed but also easily secreted out of body

    Food never toxic with water soluble vitamins
  33. Vitamin C function
    -maintains the connective tissues 

    -prevents the oxidation of constituents int he body ANTIOXIDANT

    -production of carnitine
  34. Vitamin C Deficiency
    • malaise 
    • lethargy 
    • loss of apetite
    • joint pain
  35. DRI of Vitamin C
    • 75mg/day for women 
    • 90mg/day for men 

    10mg per day to prevent scurvy

    UL: 2000mg/day
  36. Vitamin C for smokers
    Because increase level of oxidants from tobacco 

    • Women: 125mg/day 
    • Men: 110mg/day
  37. Vitamin C toxicity
    • alteration of insulin 
    • interference of medications 
    • increase kidney stones 
    • may be bad for ppl with high iron
  38. Vitamin C sources
    • oranges...
    • never toxicity from food
  39. General role of vitamin B
    • - act part of coenzyme
    • - help with metabolism 
    • - help in cell multiplication (folate and B12)
  40. Vitamin B deficiency
    • Lack of energy 
    • cell renewal become impaired because of above
  41. Thiamine
    • important for : -energy metabolism 
    •                      - nerve cell membrane (muscle contractions and nerve impulses)
  42. Deficiency in Thiamine
    Beriberi (loss sensation, muscular weakness... )

    Wernicle- korsakoff: due to alcoholism
  43. DRI Thiamine
    men: 1.2 mg/day 

    women: 1.1 mg/day
  44. Source Thiamine
    enriched pasta.... sunflower seeds, baked potato
  45. Niacin
    coenzyme needed in energy metabolism
  46. Pellgra
    • Niacin deficiency disease....
    • diarrhea, death, dementia
  47. __________is converted to niacin in body
    Tryptophan!!

    abundant in most proteins, people not eating enough protein will be deficient in niacin
  48. Folate
    • DNA synthesis repair 
    • cell division and growth
  49. DRI niacin
    • 16mg/day men
    • 14mg/day women
  50. Folate deficiency anaemia....related
    • to vitamin B12 anemia 
    • can cause deficiency in newborn (neural tube defects)

    pregnant women need to take 400ug
  51. DRI folate
    • 400ug/day 
    • UL : 1000ug/day
  52. Vitamin B12
    helps maintain the sheaths that surrounds and protects nerve fibers
  53. Deficiency in Vitamin B12
    • damage to nerves 
    • creeping paralysis 
    • anemia (pernicious) which is identical to that cause by folate deficiency (megaloblastic anemia)
  54. Cause of Vitamin B12 deficiency
    • lack of vit. in diet 
    • lack of intrinsic factors 
    • vegetarians not consuming protein
  55. DRI Vitamin B12
    2.4 ug/ day
  56. Vitamin B6
    • amino acid metabolism
    • glucose metabolism 
    • fatty acid metabolism 
    • hemoglobin synthesis 
    • immune function
  57. Vitamin B6 deficiency
    • Weakness 
    • psychological depression 
    • confusion
    • insomnia 
    • irritability 
    • increase heart disease
  58. DRI vitamin B6
    1.3mg/day 

    UL= 100mg/day
  59. High homocysteine =
    low levels of vitamins B6, B12 and folate
  60. Biotin
    • cofactor for enzymes needed in: 
    • energy metabolism
    • fat synthesis
    • amino acid metabolism 
    • glycogen synthesis

    WIDE SPREAD IN FOOD
  61. biotin deficiency..
    rare

    only if you consume raw egg white... which means your a fucken idiot
  62. Patothenic Acid
    part of a coenzyme needed in energy metabolism 

    synthesis in lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid, hormones, hemoglobin
  63. Vitamin Supplementation
    important if deficient
  64. Low dehydration
    • 2% of body weight 
    • no effect on biological system
  65. moderate dehydration
    • between 3%-5% of body weight
    • chance of overheating
    • between 40-41oC
  66. Severe dehydration
    • Higher than 5%-6% 
    • risk of heat illness 
    • body can exceed 41oC
    • vertigo
  67. Effects of dehydration on resistance training
    • loss of strength 
    • 3-4% hypo-hydration reduces
    • muscular strength by 2% 
    • muscular power by 3%
  68. Recommendation of fluids before exercise
    • 5-7 ml/kg 4 hours before exercise
    • if no urine ir dark urine: 3-5 ml/kg 2hrs b4 exercise
  69. Carb ingestion before meal:
    200-300 g 3-4h before exercise 

    1-4g/kg 1h before exercise 

    hypothesis
  70. Glycemic Index
  71. Goal during exercise
    avoid dehydration (x>2%) electrolyte loss
  72. Heat exchange is effected by
    • Thermal gradient 
    • Air movement 
    • Direct sunlight 
    • Clothing 
    • Relative humidity
  73. Fluid recommendations
    • Electrolyte composition: 0.5g of Na/Cl
    • need fluids to reduce plasm and extracellular fluid
  74. Hyponatremia
    Hypermatremia and dehydration
  75. Quantities
    10-15 ml/kg/hrs (every 12-15min)
  76. CHO during training
    • 5 to 10 g per 100ml
    • should provide 60g of CHO/ hr
  77. Post- exercise glycogen recovery
    muscle glycogen synthesis needs of 100mmol/kg 

    Intake of carbohydrate in the first 2h after exercise allows faster rate of glycogen synthesis (ie. 7-8 mmol/kg/h)
  78. Guideline for Carbs
    Carbs: 1.5g/kg in the first hour after exercise, include some with a medium to high glycemic index; maximal additional intake of 0.75-1.5g/kg per hour over the next 3h
  79. Guideline for Protein
    10-20g high- quality protein as soon as possible, but mo later than 2-3 hrs after exercise
  80. Guideline for Fluid
    1.5L (~50oz or ~ 6cups) of fluid per kg body weight  lost beginning gas soon after exercise as is practical
  81. Guideline for Sodium
    Consume foods containing sodium. If large amounts of sodium have been lost, salt food or consume salty snacks
  82. Guideline for other electrolytes
    Consume a variety of food including fruits and vegetable
  83. Sodium Role in body
    –Principal cation of extracellular fluid

    • Primary regulator of volume
    • –Acid-base balance
    • –Nerve impulse transmission
    • –Muscle contraction 
    • Sodium travels freely in the blood
    • •Kidneys: filter out and return what is needed
  84. Recommendation of Sodium
    • Diets rarely lack sodium
    • –UL for adults

    •Average intake in U.S. exceeds the UL (2,300 mg/day)

    •DRI: 1,500 mg for healthy, active young adults

    •Average CND males: 4000 mg; females 2300 mg
  85. •1 teaspoonful contains about ___ grams of salt6 grams of salt contains about 2400 mg of sodium
    6g
  86. DASH diet
    • (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)
    • •Whole grains, low-fat dairy, fruits/ vegetables, nuts; moderation red meats, high-fat foods

    lowers Na= lower BP
  87. Sodium & Salt Sensitivity
    Some individuals are more sensitive to the blood pressure-raising effects of sodium than others
  88. DRI Sodium
    • 1 500 mg/day 19-50yrs old 
    • 1 300 mg/day 51-70yrs old 
    • 1 200 mg/day over 71years 

    UL: 2300mg/day
  89. Sodium deficiency
  90. Hyponatremia
  91. Sodium Toxicity
    • –Acute
    • •Edema and high blood pressure
    • –Chronic
    • •Hypertension
  92. Chloride
    • Major anion of extracellular fluids
    • •Moves passively across membranes
    • •Associates with sodium and potassium
    • –Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
    • –Part of hydrochloric acid (strong acidity in the stomach necessary to digest protein)
  93. Chlorine recommendation
    • Principle source is sodium
    • –Recommendations are slightly higher, but still equivalent to those of sodium
  94. Deficiency and Toxicity
    • –Diets rarely lack chloride
    • –Toxicity –due to water deficiency
  95. Potassium
    • •Principal intracellular cation
    • –Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
    • –Helps maintain cell integrity
    • –Aids in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
    • •Critical for the heartbeat
    • •Sudden deaths for people with eating disorders thought to be due to heart failure because of potassium loss
  96. Potassium Deficiency and Toxicity
    Deficiency: most diets have enough potassium

    • Toxicity: No UL
    • overconsumption of potassium salts or supplement
  97. Potassium Recommendations and intakes
    • –Fresh foods are richest sources
    • –AI for potassium
    • •Increase fruit and vegetable consumption
  98. Calcium In bones and teeth
    • •In bones
    • –Calcium and phosphorusare essential to bone formation
    • –Calcium phosphate salts crystalizeon a foundation of material composed of the protein collagen
    • –This results in hydroxyapatitecrystals that invade the collagen = more strength and rigidity to maturing bones

    • •In teeth
    • –Fluoride stabilizes calcium crystals in teeth
  99. Calcium works together with vitamin K and a protein called fibrinogen in the clotting cascade. Without adequate levels of calcium and vitamin K, blood will take longer to clot.
  100. Extracellular calcium
    blood clotting
  101. intracellular calcium
    • •Regulation of muscle contraction
    • •Transmission of nerve impulses
    • •Secretion of hormones
    • •Activation of some enzyme reactions
  102. Calcium helps maintain normal...
    Blood pressure
  103. Calcium
    • •Disease prevention
    • –Hypertension 
    • –Blood cholesterol
    • –Diabetes
    • –Colon cancer
    • •Obesity 
    • –May help maintain healthy body weight
    • •Inverse relationship with food sources
  104. Calcium balance
    • –Involves system of hormones and vitamin D
    • •Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin 
    • –Organ system response
    • •Intestines
    • •Bones
    • •Kidneys
  105. Calcium absorption
    • Adults absorb about 30% of the calcium ingested 
    • –Factors that enhance calcium absorption
    • •Your body can only absorb so much at one time (500 mg)
    • •Estrogen helps Ca absorption
    • •Vitamin D increases absorption
    • •Added K helps too
    • –Factors that inhibit calcium absorption
    • •Caffeine, excess protein, alcohol
  106. Osteopenia
    Low BMD
  107. Calcium carbonate
    • –dependence on stomach acid for absorption
    • –absorbed most efficiently when taken with food
    • 40% calcium by weight
  108. Calcium citrate
    • 21% calcium 
    • absorbed equally well when taken with or without food
  109. Calcium as a supplement
    If you take 1,000 mg/day of calcium from supplements, split the dose and take 500 mg at two separate times during the day.

    Side effects: gastrointestinal side effects including gas, bloating, constipation
  110. Phosphorus
    • •Second most abundant mineral in body
    • –Concentration in blood less than half of Ca

    • •Roles in body
    • –Part of major buffer system
    • –Part of DNA and RNA
    • –Assists in energy metabolism
    • –Helps transport lipids in the blood
    • –Structural component of cell membranes
  111. Phosphorus recommendation
    • –Deficiencies are unlikely
    • –Best sources
    • •Foods rich in proteins
    • –Phosphoric acid intake and bone density
    • –UL has been established
    • •4000 mg/ day
  112. Where is Magnesium
    • •Body locations
    • –More than half is found in the bones
    • •Reservoir 
    • –Muscles and soft tissues
    • –Extracellular fluid
  113. •Body locations
    –More than half is found in the bones
    •Reservoir 
    –Muscles and soft tissues
    –Extracellular fluid
    • –Maintains bone health
    • –Part of protein making machinery
    • –Necessary for energy metabolism
    • –Participates in enzyme systems
    • –Catalyst in ATP production
    • –Muscle contraction and blood clotting
    • –Supports normal function of immune system
  114. Source magnesium
    • •Intakes
    • –Average dietary intake for U.S. adults is below recommendations
    • –Easily washed and peeled away from foods during processing
    • •Sources
    • –Legumes, seeds, and nuts
    • –Leafy green vegetables 








    • –Maintains bone health
    • –Part of protein making machinery
    • –Necessary for energy metabolism
    • –Participates in enzyme systems
    • –Catalyst in ATP production
    • –Muscle contraction and blood clotting
    • –Supports normal function of immune system
  115. Magnesium deficiency and toxicity
    • •Deficiency
    • –Rarely occurs
    • •Occurs with diseases
    • –Causes tetany and impair central nervous system activity
    • •Toxicity
    • –Rare; occurs only when taking lots of supplements
  116. Sulfate
    • •Sulfate is the oxidized form of sulfur in food and water
    • •Body needs sulfate for helping protein function
    • –Skin, hair, nails
    • •No recommended intake
    • –Normal protein intake
  117. Cortical bone
    • –Hard outer shell
    • –Gives up calcium to blood
    • •Slow and steady rate
  118. Trabecular bone
    • –Lacy matrix
    • –Give up calcium when diet runs short
    • •Impacted by day-to-day intake and need for calcium
  119. Types of osteoporosis Type I
    • •Trabecular bone loss
    • •Women are more likely victims
  120. Types of osteoporosis Type II
    • •Cortical and trabecular bone losses
    • •Dowager’s hump
  121. Measuring TYPE of Bone
    Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT)
  122. Women and menopause
    • –Estrogen
    • –Up to 20% bone loss in 6 to 8 years after menopause
  123. Caucasian and Asian higher risk for osteoporosis
  124. Iodine
    • •Deficiency
    • –Low amount of thyroxine 
    • –Thyroid gland enlarged
    • –Visible lump in the neck: goitre
    • •Sluggishness
    • •Weight gain
  125. Cretinism
    • •Extreme irreversible mental & physical retardation
    • •Can be averted if the woman’s deficiency can be detected and treated within the first 6 months of pregnancy
    • –Iodine deficiency is one of the most treatable & preventable causes of mental retardation
  126. Source of iodine
    – Amount in food varies with amount in soil in which plants are grown or on which animals graze 

    • – Seafood 
    • • Iodine is plentiful in the ocean 

    – Iodized salt: less than a half-teaspoon meets an entire day’s recommendation

    Milk: 250 mL (1 cup) supplies nearly . of a day’s recommended intake
  127. Iodine toxicity
    • •Toxicity
    • –Enlarged thyroid gland

    –Like chlorine & fluorine, deadly poison in large amounts
  128. Iron
    Most of the iron in the body is a component of either hemoglobin or myoglobin

    Helps many enzymes use oxygen

    • –Needed to make
    • •New cells
    • •Amino acids
    • •Hormones
    • •Neurotransmitters
  129. Iron absorption occurs predominantly in the duodenum and upper jejunum
    Only about 5 -15 % of iron found in foods is absorbed by the body
  130. Where is iron stored
    20-30% is stored in the spleen liver and bone marrow

    red blood cells live for about 3-4 months and when they die the spleen breaks them down and recycle their iron
  131. Iron deficiency anemia
    Anemia refers to depletion of iron stores resulting in low blood hemoglobin (low levels of RBC) 

    tiredness, apathy, a tendency to feel cold

    Pica: consumption of non food substances
  132. Worldwide, iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency, affecting more than 1.2 billion people
  133. Iron Toxicity
    • hemochromatosis
    • –Caused by a gene that enhances iron absorption. 
    • –Other causes: blood transfusions, massive doses of dietary iron, and rare metabolic disorders. 
    • •Dx when tissue damage occurs (liver)
  134. DRI for Iron
    • 8mg a day men and women over 50
    • 18mg a day women (19-50)

    vegetarians should consume 1.8times more
  135. Absorbing Iron
    • –Iron occurs in 2 forms in foods:
    • 1. Some is bound into heme
    • –The iron-containing part of hemoglobin & myoglobin in meat, poultry & fish 

    • 2. Some is nonhemeiron
    • –Found in foods from plants & in nonheme iron of meats
  136. heme iron is more reliably absorbed than nonheme iron
  137. Vitamin C can triple absoption of non heme iron
  138. Iron inhibitors
    • Phytates(found in grains, legumes, nuts, seeds)
    • Tannins (found in beer, fruit, coffee, chocolate)
    • Iron overload
    • Antacids
  139. Iron competitors
    lead, cobalt, strontium, manganese, zinc
  140. Iron Facilitators
    Vitamin C, citrate, amino acids, iron deficiency
  141. Zinc (small quantities in humains)
    • works with proteins in every body organ 
    • helps 100 enzymes 
    • wound healing 
    • assist immune function 
    • affect behaviour and learning
    • sperm productions
    • taste perception ...fetal development.. 
    • produces active form of vit. A
  142. Deficiency in zinc
    • impaired immunity 
    • abnormal taste 
    • abnormal vision in the dark
    • fucked up digestive function and diarrhea 
    • effects on growth
  143. •Native diets were low in animal protein & high in whole grains & beans
    •Thus, diets were high in fibre& phytates
    –Which bind zinc & iron
    –The breads were not leavened
    »In leavened bread, yeast breaks down phytates as the bread rises
  144. Zinc toxicity
    • illness or death 
    • block copper absorption 
    • inhibit iron absorption
  145. more research is needed for zinc helping common cold
  146. DRI zinc
    • Men 11mg/day 
    • Women 8mg day 

    UL 40mg/day
  147. Selenium
    • protect vulnerable body chemicals against oxidative destruction 
    • activates thyroid hormone 
    • low blood selenium correlates with dev. of cancer (prostate)
  148. Deficiency
    hearth disease
  149. Selenium is in wide spread of food 

    •Meats
    •Shellfish
    •Vegetables & grains grown in selenium-rich soils
  150. Toxicity of Selenium
    • hair loss 
    • diarrhea.. eww
    • nerve abnormalities 

    • UL: 400 mcg
    • not essential to life
  151. Fluoride
  152. –Crystalline deposits in bone & teeth
    –Helps prevent dental caries
  153. Source of Fluoride
    • Primary source: fluoridated drinking water
    • •Such water typically delivers ≈1 mg/day (≈1 part per million)
  154. Fluoridation of water is recommended for public health..
  155. Chromium
    works with insulin to regulat and release energy from glucose
  156. Deficiency in chromium
    • impaired insulin action
    • supplements cant cure the common form of diabetes ]
  157. Toxicity in chromium compounds
    • carcinogen 
    • skin eruption
  158. Source of chromium
    • liver 
    • whole grains 
    • nuts 
    • cheeses
  159. Minimum intake of chromium
    50 mcg/day
  160. Copper
    • –Formation of hemoglobin & collagen
    • –Many enzymes depend on copper for its oxygen-handling ability
    • –Plays a role in the body’s handling of iron
    • –Assists in reactions leading to the release of energy
    • control free radical damage
  161. Deficiency in copper
    • –Rare
    • –Seen in severely malnourished infants fed a copper-poor milk formula
    • –Excess zinc interferes with copper absorption & can cause deficiency
    • –Symptoms
    • impaired immunity and blood flow through ateries 
    • growth and metabolism fuck up
  162. Copper toxicity
    • not from food 
    • UL 10mg/day
  163. •An excess of one may cause a deficiency of another
    Example: a slight manganese overload may aggravate iron deficiency
    •A deficiency of one mineral may lead to a toxic reaction of another

    Example: iron deficiency makes the body much more susceptible to lead poisoning
  164. Nutriton prior to pregancy
    • –Achieve and maintain healthy body weight
    • –Choose an adequate and balanced diet
    • –Be physically active
    • –Receive regular medical care
    • –Manage chronic conditions
    • –Avoid harmful influences
  165. nutrition before pregnancy assures the that uterus will be able to support the growth of a healthy placenta during the first month of gestation
  166. Extra needs during trimesters
    none during first 

    340 additional calories a day (2nd)

    450 additional calories a day (3rd)
  167. DRI for protein in prego ppl
    + 25g/day
  168. When pregnant avoid
    raw fish, uncooked meat, raw sprouts, raw eggs (caesar vinaigrette)
  169. Dont be exposed to mercury when prego but eat 150g of cooked fish still
  170. Folate & Vitamin B12
    Pregnant female: 600 mcg/day

    prevents neural tube defects
  171. Among the minerals, calcium, phosphorus, & magnesium are in great demand during pregnancy
    Necessary for normal development of the bones & teeth
  172. The intestinal absorption of calcium doubles during early pregancy and mineral is stored in the mother's bones
  173. DRI calcium for prego women
    600mg
  174. DRI for iron in prego women
    16-20mg during the 2nd and 3rd trimester
  175. Vitamin A during pregnancy
    NOT TOO MUCH... it will fuck up your baby
  176. Weight gain patterns
  177. -3.5 pounds in first trimester
    • –1 pound per week thereafter
    • –Large weight gain over short time
    • •Preeclampsia
  178. Seven pounds more
    BMI increases by 1 unit
  179. PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD EXERCISE!!
  180. Women with phenylketonuria should not use
    aspartame
  181. Most sensible course is to limit caffeine consumption per day
    •250 ml (1 cup) coffee OR
    •2 x 355 mL cola beverages
  182. Low Apgar score
    –A system of scoring an infant’s physical condition right after birth

    –Heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, response to stimuli & colour are ranked 0, 1, or 2:

    •A low score indicates that medical attention is required to facilitate survival
  183. Breast milk or infant fake milk (formula) recommended
    for first 4-6 months
  184. Making milk cost..
    • women almost 500 calories/day thats why they need to eat extra 330 calories each day 
    • If you are a vegetarian take vitamin b12
  185. Nutrients most needed for babies
    Iron then Vitamin C
  186. Milk anemia
    too much milk displacing actual important nutrients
  187. Food to omit
    sweets, they are fucken babies they dont know what dessert is and it will make them fat and canned veggies..too much salt
  188. canadian food guide for kids..check
  189. Food allergy
    • ◦ 1-2 Percent of Adults and 3 Percent of Children
    • Have Food Allergies
    • ◦ About 90 percent caused by:
    •  Eight Foods: Milk, Egg, Wheat, Peanut, Soy, Tree Nuts,
    • Fish and Shellfish
  190. Food intolerance
    • not involving immune system 
    • "lactose intolerance"
  191. Food that can make ppl sick
    • high moisture and nutrients 
    • chopped or ground 
    • eggs 
    • raw produce 
    • fruits with rough skins
    • seafood 
    • fish 
    • unpasteurized milk
  192. Contaminants that can play a rolel
    • heavy metal 
    • halogens and organic halogens 
    • pesticides
  193. Processing food
    • need to stop: 
    • microbial growth 
    • oxidative changes 
    • enzymatic destruction
  194. irradiation
    application of ionizing radiation to foods to reduce insect infestation or microbial contamination process.
  195. radiolytic products
    chemical formed in foods during the irradiation process, experts say its harmelss
  196. canning
    • A method of preserving food by killing all
    • microorganisms present in the food & then
    • sealing out air
  197. minerals are not effected by heat
  198. 3 vulnerable water soluble vitamins
    • Thiamine 
    • vitamin C 
    • riboflavin
  199. Preservatives that protect food from the
    growth of microbes that can spoil the food &
    cause foodborne illnesses
  200. Nitrites
    • ◦ Added to meats & meat products to
    •  Preserve their colour
    •  Enhance their flavour
    •  Protect against bacterial growth

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