MMI organisms to know

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MMI organisms to know
2013-04-17 12:13:47
Bacteria Viruses fungis parasites know

Top organisms to know
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  1. Staphylococcus aureus
    • Gram positive cocci
    • Coagulase positive
    • Clusters
    • Carbuncle or boil
  2. Staphylococcus epidermidis
    • Gram positive cocci
    • Coagulase negative
    • Clusters
  3. Staphylococcus saphrophyticus
    • Gram positive cocci
    • Coagulase negative
    • Clusters
  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Diplococci gram positive
    • Alpha hemolytic
    • Community acquired pneumoniae
  5. Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Group A strep
    • Gram positive chained cocci
    • Beta bemolytic
    • Flesh-eating disease
  6. Streptococcus agaluactiae
    • Group B Strep
    • Gram positive chained cocci
    • Beta hemolytic
  7. Enterococcus
    • Streptococcus, gram positive cocci chained
    • Gamma hemolytic
  8. Listeria monocytogenes
    • Gram positive bacilli
    • without spores
  9. Corynebacterium diptheriae
    • Gram positive bacilli
    • Without spores
  10. Bacillus species
    • Ie. B. anthracis
    • Aerobic
    • Gram positive bacilli with spores
  11. Clostridium species
    • Anaerobic
    • Gram positive bacilli
    • With spores
  12. Clostridium difficile
    Gram positive bacilli with spores
  13. Clostridium perfringens
    • Gram positive bacilli with spores
    • Gas gangrene
  14. Clostridium botulinum
    Gram positive bacilli with spores
  15. Clostridium tetani
    Gram positive bacilli with spores
  16. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • Diplococci gram negative cooci
    • The clap
  17. Neisseria meningitidis
    Diplococci Gram negative cocci
  18. Escherichia coli (including 0157:H7)
    • Gram negative bacilli
    • Aerobic and faculitative
    • Hamburger disease
  19. Psuedomonas aeruginosa
    Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facultative
  20. Salomonella
    Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facultative
  21. Shigella
    • Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facultative
    • Bacillary dysentery
  22. Campylobacter
    Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facilitative
  23. Yersinia
    Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facilitative
  24. Francisella
    • Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facultative
    • Rabbit Fever
  25. Helicobacter pylori
    • Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facilitative
    • Peptic and duodenal ulcers
  26. Haemophilus influenza
    Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facilitative
  27. Bordetella pertussis
    • Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facilitative
    • Whooping cough
  28. Pasteurella multocida
    Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facilitative
  29. Vibrio cholerae
    Gram negative bacilli Aerobic and facilitative
  30. Bacteriodes
    Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria
  31. Fusobacterium
    Anaerobic Gram negative bacteria
  32. Actinomycs
    • Aerotolerant
    • Anaerobic Gram positive pleomorphic bacteria
  33. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Cell not stainable using a gram stain
    • Bacteria
  34. Mycobacterium laprae
    • Cell wall not stainable using a gram stain
    • Bacteria
  35. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • No cell wall
    • Bacteria
  36. Treponem pallidum
    • Too small to see
    • Bacteria
  37. Chlymydia trachomatis
    Intracellular and too small to see
  38. Bartonella hensalae
    Cat scratch disease
  39. Taenia solium
    • Cysticercosis
    • Cestodes, metazoa parasties
    • Pork tapeworm
  40. Trichomonas vaginalis
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Trich, no cyst frm
    • Trichomonas spralis causes trichinlleosis
  41. Borrelia bergdorfer
    Lyme disease
  42. Streptococcus mutans
    • Gram positive cocci that are in chains
    • Dental cavities
  43. Schistosoma species
    Swimmer's itch
  44. Candida albicans
    • Yest, one celled fungi
    • Thrush, vaginal yeast infection
  45. Cryptococcus neoformans/gatte
    • Yeast: one celled fungi
    • meningitis
  46. Pneumocystis jlroveci
    Yeast: one celled fungi
  47. Malessezia furfur
    Yeast: one celled fungi
  48. Saccharomyces sp
    Yeast: one celled fungi
  49. Aspergeillus species
    Mold: many celled fungi
  50. Sporothrix schenkii
    • Dimorphic fungi
    • Causes Rose Gardner's Disease
  51. Histoplasma capsulatum
    • Dimorphic fungi
    • Speluker's Disease
  52. Coccidioides immitis
    • Dimorphic fungi
    • Valley fever
  53. Blastomyces dermatitdis
    Dimorphic fungi
  54. Entamoeba histolytica
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Amoebic dysentry
  55. Giardia lamblia
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Causes beaver fever
  56. Acanthamoeba species
    Protozoa: one celled parasite
  57. Cryptosporidium paruum
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Increase resistance to chlorine
  58. Toxoplasma yondii
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Pregnant women avoid this by eating cooked meat and avoiding cat feces
  59. Trypansoma cruzi and brucei
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Cruzi causes Chaga's disease
    • Brucei causes Africa sleeping sickness
  60. Leishamnia species
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Oriental sore
  61. Plasmodium species
    Protozoa: one celled parasite
  62. Plasmodium flaciparum
    • Protozoa: one celled parasite
    • Causes severe anemia
  63. Plasmodium malariae
    Protozoa: one celled parasite
  64. Plasmodium Virax
    Protozoa: one celled parasite
  65. Plasmodium ovale
    Protozoa: one celled parasite
  66. Plasmodium knowlesii
    Protozoa: one celled parasite
  67. Helminths
    • Many celled parasites
    • Metaoza
  68. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
    • Nematode, metazoa
    • Common occurrence in day care
  69. Ascaris lumbricoides
    • Nematode, metazoa
    • Worms come out of noses
  70. Trichuris trichuria
    Nematode, metazoa
  71. Hookworm
    Nematode, metazoa
  72. Anisakis
    Nematode, metazoa
  73. Trichinella
    Nematode, metazoa
  74. Filaria = blood roundworms (general)
    Nematode, metazoa
  75. Schistosoma: S hematobium, S. japonicum, S. mansoni
    • Trematodes, metazoa parasites
    • From birds gives swimmer's itch
    • S. hematobium gives urniary schistosoma
  76. Taenia saginata
    • Beef tapeworm
    • Cestodes, metazoa parasites
  77. Echinococcus species
    • Cestodes, metazoan parasites
    • Genus of the do tapeworm
  78. Sarcoptes scabei
    Ectoparasite, metazoa parasite
  79. Pediculus humanus
    Ectoparasite, metazoan parasite
  80. Phthirus pubis
    Ectoparasite, metazoan parasite
  81. Herspesviriae
    • HSV, VZN, CMU, EBV
    • DNA virus
    • envolope
  82. Poxviridae
    • Vaccinia, Varola, Molloscum contagiosum
    • DNA Virus, Envoloped
  83. Adeniviridae
    • UPT, eye infection, GI infections
    • DNA virus, no evelope
  84. Papoviridae
    • HPV, Polymavirus (JC virus)
    • DNA virus, no envelope
  85. Parvoviridae
    • B19
    • DNA virus, no envelope
  86. Hepadnavirus
    • HBV
    • DNA virus, Envoloped
  87. Picornaviridae
    • Enteroviruses like poliovirus, HAV, Rhiovirus
    • RNA virus, no envelope
  88. Caliciviidae
    • Norovirus
    • RNA virus, no envelope
  89. Togaviridae
    • Rubella
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  90. Flaviviridae
    • Yellow Fever, Dengue, HCV
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  91. Coronaviridae
    • SARS, common cold
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  92. Paramyxoviridae
    • PIV, Measles, Mumps
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  93. Orthomyoviridae
    • Influenza A, B, C
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  94. Bunyaviridae
    • Hanta
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  95. Reoviridae
    • Rotavirus
    • RNA virus, no envelope
  96. Rhabdoviridae
    • Rabies
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  97. Filoviridae
    • Ebola
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  98. Retroviridae
    • HIV, HTLV-1, HTLV-II
    • RNA virus, enveloped
  99. Immunology, 2 branches
    • Innate immunity
    • Adaptive immunity
  100. 1st line of defense (innate)
    • Skin
    • Mucous membranes & secretions
    • Normal flora
  101. 2nd line of defense (innate immune)
    • Leukocytes (WBC): monocytes/macrophages, Dendritic cells, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils/Mast cells
    • Toll Like Receptors (TLRs)
    • Chemotaxis
    • MHC
    • Complement: classical, alternate and lectin; Triggers for activation; C3a, C5a, C3b, C5-9; Function (OIL)
    • Anitmicrobial substances: antimicrobial peptides, acute phase porteins, interferons
  102. 3rd line of defense (apaptive immune)
    • Specialized lymphocytes: B cells and T cells
    • Antibodies
  103. Innate immune system
    • Already in place at birth, first and second line of defenses
    • Prevent colonization, replication and spread of infectious agents
    • Physical barriers, then 2nd line of defense
    • Phagocytes, inflammatory responses and complement proteins become activated
    • Antimicrobial substances are produced (lysozyme)
    • Nonspecific functions occur rapidly and are essential
  104. Lymph nodes
    Where the cells of the immune system multiply to prepare to fight off the infection.
  105. How viruses overcome host barriers
    • invade host cell and take over cellular machinery
    • Live inside host cells and try to hide from immune system
    • Some may down regulate markers on the host cell that signal infection within
  106. How bacteria overcome host defenses
    • Usually live outside host cells
    • many have specific mechanisms like capsules, enzymes, and exotoxins to avoid or destroy host defenses (and cells)
  107. How parasites overcome host defenses
    • Can be very large (up to 10m in length)
    • Some cloak themselves in layer that make them invisible to the immune system: consists of host-derived molecules, so the immune system sees the parasite as self.
  108. How Fungi overcome host barriers
    • Different strategies, depending on fungi
    • Come yeast can produce a capsule for evading phagocytosis
    • Some molds are large and not easily accessible for phagocytosis
    • Some molds can change their morphology in the body and become yeast, which may be able to replicate and survive in macrophages (dimorphic)
  109. Composition of Blood
    • Plasma: Fluid portion of blood, with clotting proteins and nonativated
    • Erythrocytes: red blood cells; carry oxygen to tissues
    • Platelets: involved in clotting and plugging capillaries, production of immune-reactive chemicals like serotonin
    • Leukocytes: white blood cells; granulocytes and mononuclear cells
    • Serum: liquid part of the blood, with blood clotting factors removed
  110. Leukocytes
    • Granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
    • Mononuclear cells: Monocytes, natural killer and lymphocytes
  111. Dendritic cells
    • eg. Landerhans cells
    • Antigen-presenting cells that live in tissues and process and present antigen to helper T cells that live in tissues.  These cells survey tissue and "look" for antigen or foreign substances and can be microorganisms
  112. Peroxidase
    Enzymes (break down H2O2) and produce oxidizing compounds that can affect bacteria (eg. catalase)
  113. Lactoferrin
    Iron-binding protein often in secretions (deprives proliferating bacteria of iron, so restricts growth)
  114. Transferrin
    Iron-binding protein in the blood
  115. Defensins
    Short antimicrobial peptides found on mucous membranes and in phagocytic cells. Function to form pores in target; results in microbial cell destruction
  116. Defense mechanisms of mucous membranes
    • Goblet cells: secrete mucus - traps microbes
    • Mechanical removal: coughing, sneezing to expel organisms
    • Ciliary escalator: Ciliated epithelial cells in trachea and nasopharynx
    • Secretions: "flushing" to prevent infection: tears, saliva, crevicular fluid urine
  117. Nuetrophil
    • Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)
    • Originate in bone marrow, short-lived as it doesn't have mitochondria
  118. Natural Killer cells
    • First line of defense against intracellular pathogens
    • Kill "targets" directly, check out MHC I
    • Kills tumor cells, viral/intracellular bacteria infected cells
  119. Eosiophils
    Kill parasites by large numbers and release chemicals
  120. Interferon
    Produced by tissues in response to viral infection (purpose is to protect surrounding cells from viral infection)
  121. MHC
    • found on outside of membrane of body cells
    • MHC I- found on almost all nucleated body cells.  NK cells check out the MHC I to find if there is a problem.
    • MHC II: Found only on APC (antigen-presenting cells) macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes.  These work with the T helper cells in the adaptive immune system
  122. OIL
    • Complemantion
    • Opsonization- coats bacteria to enhance phagocytosis
    • Inflammation to recruit phagocytes
    • Lysis
  123. B cells
    antibody -production factories
  124. Tc cells
    T cytotoxic cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity
  125. Th cells
    T helper cells: interact with antigen presenting cells and mediate the activation of B and Tc cells
  126. 4 fundamental properties of acquired immunity
    • Learning
    • Specificity
    • Diversity
    • Memory