Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis

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dg527
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Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis
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2013-04-16 16:18:33
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Chapter 27 Fluid Electrolyte Acid Base Homeostasis
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Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis
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  1. Identify and define the two fluid compartments of the body.
    • Intracellular Fluid: Fluid Inside Cells
    • Extracellular Fluid: Fluid Outside Cells
  2. Describe the various locations of extracellular fluid.
    • Blood (Plasma)
    • Lymph
    • Interstitial Fluid (surrounding cell)
    • Spinal Fluid (in brain)
    • Synovial Fluid (Joints)
    • Eye
    • Hearing Apparatus
    • Peritoneal Fluid
  3. What are the barriers that separate intracellular fluid , interstitial fluid, and plasma.
    • Cell Membrane separate interstitial fluid from intracellular fluid
    • Wall of the capillary separates interstitial fluid from plasma
  4. What processes provide for exchange of fluid among compartments ?
    • Osmosis: move water in membrane from area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
    • Diffusion
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorbtion
  5. Why is the concentration of solutes in body fluids important ?
    Water move to area of high solute concentration
  6. What are the main sources from which the body can gain water ?
    • Ingested (Drink)
    • Water content of foods
    • Metabolic Water (reactions in body give off water)
  7. What are the main ways in which a body loses water ?
    • Through your kidneys
    • Sweet (through skin)
    • Through the lungs
    • Through the GI tract
    • Through menstration
  8. What part of the body regulates water intake ?  Briefly describe some of the signals that activate the thirst center.
    • Brain
    • Thirst center in hypothalamus
    • Osmoreceptors in blood vessels
    • Barorecepters (if blood volume decreases)
  9. Name the main hormones that regulate salt and water loss.
    • Anti diarrheic
    • Aldosterone
    • Atrial Natrioletic Peptide
  10. Describe what happens to the body during water intoxication.
    • Happens if drinking water faster than your kidneys can excrete it
    • If loosing ions through diarrhea
  11. Name the four major functions of ions in body fluids.
    • 1. Control osmosis of fluids between compartments
    • 2. Help maintain acid based balance
    • 3. Carry the electric current
    • 4. Serve as cofactors
  12. Describe the location, function and means of control of the following ions :
    Sodium
    • L: Extracellular
    • F: fluid and electrolyte balance.  Conduction of action potential
    • C: Control by aldosterone, ADH, ANP
  13. Describe the location, function and means of control of the following ions :
    Potassium
    • L: Intracellular
    • F: pH of body fluids, maintains intracellular fluid volume, maintains membrane potential
    • C: Aldosterone
  14. Describe the location, function and means of control of the following ions :
    Chloride
    • L: Extracellular
    • F: balance level of an ions in fluid compartment; HCl
    • C: ADH, aldosterone
  15. Describe the location, function and means of control of the following ions :
    Bicarbonate
    • L: Extracellular
    • F: pH balance
    • C: kidney, lungs
  16. Describe the location, function and means of control of the following ions :
    Calcium
    • L: Extracellular
    • F: Bones, teeth, clotting, neuro transmitter, excitability of nerve/ muscle tissue
    • C: parathormone, calcitriol
  17. Describe the location, function and means of control of the following ions :
    Phosphate
    • L: Intracellular
    • F: Buffer, ATP, nucleic acids, phospholipids
    • C: parathormone, calcitriol
  18. Describe the location, function and means of control of the following ions :
    Magnesium
    • L: Intracellular
    • F: Cofactor for enzymes, ATP pumps, nerve, muscle activity, heart
    • C: Parathormone, Excretion by kidneys
  19. Why is it important for the body to maintain an appropriate pH ?
    • proteins will lose their shape and function
    • most proteins are enzymes
  20. Does the pH of your body fluids normally tend to increase or decrease ?
    • Decrease
    • Tend to get acid
  21. Name the three major mechanisms that control the levels of H+ in the body fluids.
    • 1. Breathing Process: Exhailing CO2
    • 2. Kidneys: Excrete H ion
    • 3. Buffers: Minimize the pH change
  22. Name the body’s major buffering systems.
    • phosphates
    • proteins
    • Bicarbonate Ion
  23. Describe how the pH of body fluids affects the rate and depth of breathing.
    • Increase breathing rate
    • So bicarbonate ions can pick up extra oxygen ions
    • Exhale CO2
  24. What is acidosis ? Describe the major physiological effects of acidosis.
    • When the pH of the blood drops below 7.35
    • Depresses the activity of the central nervous system
    • Depress speed of impulse reaction
  25. What is alkalosis?  Describe the major physiological effects of alkalosis.
    • Blood pH above 7.45
    • Main effect over excitability of the central nervous system
    • Spasms, convulsions, Death
  26. What is compensation?  Describe two types of compensation.
    • Physiological response designed to compensate respiratory imbalance
    • 1. Respiratory Compensation: Changes in breathing rate. work fast
    • 2. Renal Compensation: Kidneys change how much H ion (secrete/reabsorb) work slow
  27. Name some causes of respiratory acidosis.  How is respiratory acidosis treated ?
    • Inadequate exhalation of CO2
    • Caused by lung diseases: Emphysema, Blockage in airway, Brain damage (stroke, injury), problem with breathing muscles (ribs)
    • Tx: Inject H ions,
  28. Name some causes of metabolic acidosis.  How is metabolic acidosis treated ?
    • Caused: Server diarrhea, loosing bicarbonate ion, kidney disease, accumulation of acid
    • Tx: Hyperventilation, injections of bicarb
  29. Name some causes of respiratory alkalosis.  How is respiratory alkalosis treated ?
    • Caused: Stress, anxiety, oxygen deficiency, brain injuries, pulmonary disease
    • Tx: Breath in a bag,
  30. Name some causes of metabolic alkalosis.  How is metabolic alkalosis treated ?
    • Cause : extensive vomiting, intake of alkaline drugs, diarrheic, hormones
    • Tx: look at root cause

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