Chapter 32

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Chapter 32
2013-04-16 16:45:42
Pharm last test

Pharm last test
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  1. diabetes mellitus
    a complex disorder of carbs, fat, and protein metabolism resulting primarily from the lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or from defects of the insulin receptors
  2. diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    severe metabolic complication of uncontrolled diabetes that, if untreated, leads to diabetic coma and death
  3. gestational diabetes
    • diabetes that develops during pregnancy
    • it may resolve after pregnancy but may also be a precursor of type 2 diabetes in later life
  4. glucagon
    hormone produced by the alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans that stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
  5. hemoglobin A1C (A1C)
    • hemoglobin molecules to which glucose molecules are bound
    • used as a diagnostic measure of average daily blood glucose levels
  6. hyperglycemia
    • fasting blood glucose level of 126
    • nonfasting blood glucose level of 200
  7. hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HNKS)
    metabolic complication of uncontrolled diabetes, similar in severity to DKA but without ketosis and acidosis
  8. hypoglycemia
    blood glucose level of less that 50
  9. impaired fasting glucose level
    • gasting glucose level of at least 110 but lower than 126 
    • defines a prediabetic state
  10. insulin
    a naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood
  11. ketones
    organic chemical compounds produced through the oxidation of secondary alcohol including dietary carbohydrates
  12. polydipsia
    chronic excessive intake of water
  13. polyphagia
    excessive eating
  14. polyuria
    increased frequency of volume of urinary output