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Altering the DNA of an organism to produce desired traits
Crossing individuals that have a desired characteristic
What is an example of Selective Breeding
Dairy cows for increased production of milk
Crossing individuals with similar characteristics so that those characteristics will appear in the offspring
What is an example of Inbreeding?
What is the problem with Inbreeding?
Recessive genetic defects may be passed down
Crossing dissimilar indviduals
Hybrids are hardier than parents
What is an example of Hybridization?
(and it's 3 pro's)
- Hybrid corn:
- -Disease resistant
- -Yield more corn per acre
- -Has higher nutritional value
Change DNA that is not found naturally in population
Causes mutation through agents such as chemical or radiation
3 Examples of Mutations?
- Seedless Oranges
- Hairless MIce
Treatment of disorders using engineered genes into patients cells so they can produce proteins that they could not before
3 Ways to Modify Genes?
- Somatic Gene Therapy
Ways to Modify Genes:
Body cells, not passed to offspring
Somatic Gene Therapy
Ways to Modify Genes:
Sex cells, passed to offspring
Ways to Modify Genes:
Copy specific DNA, cell or organism
Another word for DNA cloning?
Recombinant DNA technology
DNA from 2 sources is combined
Proteins that cut DNA at a specific sequence
Small circular DNA molecules in bacteria
What was Recombinant DNA technology first used with?
Steps to Make Recombinant DNA?:
- 1. Isolate plasmid from bacterium
- 2. Cut with restriction enzyme creating "sticky ends"
- 3. Insert gene of interest
- 4. Put new plasmid in bacterium and it will replicate and produce proteins
What are the Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria?
- 1. Bacteria can make human insulin or human growth hormone.
- 2. Bacteria can be engineered to "eat" oil spills.
- 3. Cancer Treatment
What is an example of Plants that are genetically modified?
Frost-resistant strawberries with gene from cold-water fish
What percent of food in the supermarket is genetically modified?
What are 3 Pro's to Genetically Modified Plants?
- Hardier Fruit
How do you create a Genetically Modified Plant?
- 1. Create recombinant bacteria with desired gene
- 2. Allow the bacteria to "infect" the plant cells
- 3. Desired gene is inserted into plant chromosomes
What are 2 types of cloning?
Cloning that produces human embryos for use in research
Blank cells found in umbilical cord and bone marrow
These have the ability to change to certain cell determined by surrounding tissue
Cloning that creates an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another
Example of Reproductive Cloning
Dolly the sheep
What are the Stages (8) of the creation of Dolly?
- 1. Cells collected from a sheep's udder.
- 2. The nucleus is removed from an unfertilized egg of a second sheep.
- 3. An udder cell is inserted into the egg with no nucleus
- 4. The insertion is successful
- 5. An electrical charge is supplied to fusion occurs
- 6. Cells begin to divide
- 7&8. Embryo is placed into a third sheep, the surrogate mother
What are the pro's of cloning?
- Cure human diseases
- Crate animal organs
- Create animals that are disease resistant
- More consistent food products
- Save endangered species
What are the cons cloning?
- Use technology to clone humans
- Not efficient
Is cloning asexual or sexual?
False facts about cloning:
Genetic Make-up is altered
Mutants are created
Clones are unhealthy
Possible to recreate dead people
True cloning facts:
Plant cloning has been around for thousands of years
Farm animal cloning has been around for over 20 years
Cloned animals are save to eat and raise
When was the Human Cloning Prohibition Act passed?
What is the Criminal Penalty for Cloning humans?
Up to 10 years in prison
What is the civil penalty for Cloning humans?
1 million dollar fine
Contains foreign DNA
Desired DNA is added to an egg cell
An example of a Transgenic Animal and how it is good for humans.
Mice, we can use to study the human immune system
Produce large amounts of protein quickly and inexpensively
What is an example of Transgenic Bacteria? and what does it do?
- -Helps protect cancer patients from viruses due to a weakened immune system from chemo therapy.
Produces plants that create natural insecticides and nitrogen nutrients
What is an example of a Transgenic Plant?
Tomatoes that don't spoil as quickly
Examples of DNA samples?
- Body tissue
Reasons for DNA Fingerprinting?
- Criminal Identifications
- Paternity or Maternity
- Personal Identifications
- Exoneration of Criminals
What does PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) allow scientists to do?
To make many copies of a piece of DNA
Steps (3) of The Polymerase Chain Reaction?
- 1. Heat the DNA so it "unzips".
- 2. Add the nitrogen bases
- 3. Allow DNA to cool so the strands can zip together
Steps (5) of DNA fingerprinting
- 1. Get sample of DNA
- 2. Cut DNA using restriction enzymes
- 3. Transfer DNA to nylon sheet on gel and soak overnight
- 4. Add radioactive probes to produce pattern
- 5. Compare DNA fingerprint to unknown sample
What helps solve violent crimes in FBI labratorys?